Health
Conditions and Diseases
Malaria

What is the Life cycle of Malaria?

Answer

User Avatar
Wiki User
07/19/2014

Schema of the Life Cycle of Malaria

= = The malaria parasite life cycle involves two hosts. During a blood meal, a malaria-infected female Anopheles mosquito inoculates sporozoites into the human host . Sporozoites infect liver cells and mature into schizonts , which rupture and release merozoites . (Of note, in P. vivax and P. ovale a dormant stage [hypnozoites] can persist in the liver and cause relapses by invading the bloodstream weeks, or even years later.) After this initial replication in the liver (exo-erythrocytic schizogony ), the parasites undergo laughl multiplication in the erythrocytes (erythrocytic schizogony ). Merozoites infect red blood cells . The ring stage trophozoites mature into schizonts, which rupture releasing merozoites . Some parasites differentiate into sexual erythrocytic stages (gametocytes) . Blood stage parasites are responsible for the clinical manifestations of the disease. The gametocytes, male (microgametocytes) and female (macrogametocytes), are ingested by an Anopheles mosquito during a blood meal . The parasites' multiplication in the mosquito is known as the sporogonic cycle . While in the mosquito's stomach, the microgametes penetrate the macrogametes generating zygotes . The zygotes in turn become motile and elongated (ookinetes) which invade the midgut wall of the mosquito where they develop into oocysts . The oocysts grow, rupture, and release sporozoites , which make their way to the mosquito's salivary glands. Inoculation of the sporozoites into a new human host perpetuates the malaria life cycle. ANSWERED BY: GENERAL PROFESSOR ARIEL N. MAGNO MALARIA: A SERIOUS DISEASE by: GENERAL PROFFESOR ARIEL MAGNO of CEBU,PHILIPPINES. In nature, malaria parasites spread by infecting successively two types of hosts: humans and female Anopheles mosquitoes. In humans, the parasites grow and multiply first in the liver cells and then in the red cells of the blood. In the blood, successive broods of parasites grow inside the red cells and destroy them, releasing daughter parasites ("merozoites") that continue the cycle by invading other red cells. The blood stage parasites are those that cause the symptoms of malaria. When certain forms of blood stage parasites ("gametocytes") are picked up by a female Anopheles mosquito during a blood meal, they start another, different cycle of growth and multiplication in the mosquito. After 10-18 days, the parasites are found (as "sporozoites") in the mosquito's salivary glands. When the Anopheles mosquito takes a blood meal on another human, the sporozoites are injected with the mosquito's saliva and start another human infection when they parasitize the liver cells. Thus the mosquito carries the disease from one human to another (acting as a "vector"). Differently from the human host, the mosquito vector does not suffer from the presence of the parasites. View Schema of the life cycle of malaria = Human Hosts = Humans infected with malaria parasites can develop a wide range of symptoms. These vary from asymptomatic infections (no apparent illness), to the classic symptoms of malaria (fever, chills, sweating, headaches, muscle pains), to severe complications (cerebral malaria, anemia, kidney failure) that can result in death. The severity of the symptoms depends on several factors, such as the species (type) of infecting parasite and the human's acquired immunity and genetic background. more: Human Hosts = Malaria Parasites = Four species of malaria parasites can infect humans under natural conditions: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. The first two species cause the most infections worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum is the agent of severe, potentially fatal malaria, causing an estimated 700,000 - 2.7 million deaths annually, most of them in young children in Africa. Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale have dormant liver stage parasites ("hypnozoites") which can reactivate ("relapse") and cause malaria several months or years after the infecting mosquito bite. Plasmodium malariae produces long-lasting infections and if left untreated can persist asymptomatically in the human host for years, even a lifetime. More: Malaria Parasites = Anopheles Mosquitoes = Malaria is transmitted among humans by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Female mosquitoes take blood meals to carry out egg production, and such blood meals are the link between the human and the mosquito hosts in the parasite life cycle. Of the approximately 430 known species of Anopheles, only 30-50 transmit malaria in nature. The successful development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito (from the "gametocyte" stage to the "sporozoite" stage) depends on several factors. The most important is ambient temperature and humidity (higher temperatures accelerate the parasite growth in the mosquito) and whether the Anopheles survives long enough to allow the parasite to complete its cycle in the mosquito host ("sporogonic" or "extrinsic" cycle, duration 10 to 18 days). Differently from the human host, the mosquito host does not suffer noticeably from the presence of the parasites. by:ariel n. magno pisti MALARIA: A SERIOUS DISEASE by: GENERAL PROFFESOR ARIEL MAGNO of CEBU,PHILIPPINES.In nature, malaria parasites spread by infecting successively two types of hosts: humans and female Anopheles mosquitoes. In humans, the parasites grow and multiply first in the liver cells and then in the red cells of the blood. In the blood, successive broods of parasites grow inside the red cells and destroy them, releasing daughter parasites ("merozoites") that continue the cycle by invading other red cells. The blood stage parasites are those that cause the symptoms of malaria. When certain forms of blood stage parasites ("gametocytes") are picked up by a female Anopheles mosquito during a blood meal, they start another, different cycle of growth and multiplication in the mosquito. After 10-18 days, the parasites are found (as "sporozoites") in the mosquito's salivary glands. When the Anopheles mosquito takes a blood meal on another human, the sporozoites are injected with the mosquito's saliva and start another human infection when they parasitize the liver cells. Thus the mosquito carries the disease from one human to another (acting as a "vector"). Differently from the human host, the mosquito vector does not suffer from the presence of the parasites. View Schema of the life cycle of malaria = Human Hosts = Humans infected with malaria parasites can develop a wide range of symptoms. These vary from asymptomatic infections (no apparent illness), to the classic symptoms of malaria (fever, chills, sweating, headaches, muscle pains), to severe complications (cerebral malaria, anemia, kidney failure) that can result in death. The severity of the symptoms depends on several factors, such as the species (type) of infecting parasite and the human's acquired immunity and genetic background. more: Human Hosts = Malaria Parasites = Four species of malaria parasites can infect humans under natural conditions: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. The first two species cause the most infections worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum is the agent of severe, potentially fatal malaria, causing an estimated 700,000 - 2.7 million deaths annually, most of them in young children in Africa. Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale have dormant liver stage parasites ("hypnozoites") which can reactivate ("relapse") and cause malaria several months or years after the infecting mosquito bite. Plasmodium malariae produces long-lasting infections and if left untreated can persist asymptomatically in the human host for years, even a lifetime. More: Malaria Parasites = Anopheles Mosquitoes = Malaria is transmitted among humans by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Female mosquitoes take blood meals to carry out egg production, and such blood meals are the link between the human and the mosquito hosts in the parasite life cycle. Of the approximately 430 known species of Anopheles, only 30-50 transmit malaria in nature. The successful development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito (from the "gametocyte" stage to the "sporozoite" stage) depends on several factors. The most important is ambient temperature and humidity (higher temperatures accelerate the parasite growth in the mosquito) and whether the Anopheles survives long enough to allow the parasite to complete its cycle in the mosquito host ("sporogonic" or "extrinsic" cycle, duration 10 to 18 days). Differently from the human host, the mosquito host does not suffer noticeably from the presence of the parasites.
Stage 1: After getting injected into the human bloodstream following a bite from Anopheles mosquito, the parasites in the form of sporozoites invade the liver. They stay in the liver cells after destroying them.

Stage2: Over a period of 5 to 16 days, depending on the species of the malaria parasite, sporozoites multiply rapidly to create thousands of red blood cell invading parasites called merzoites. Each of the sporozoit infected liver cell creates thousands of merzoites. Some species of the malaria parasite remain dormant for long periods before causing relapses weeks or months later.

Stage 3: The merzoites now leave the liver cells and invade the red blood cells after entering the bloodstream. In the next 1 to 3 days, asexual replications of merzoites take place leading to the sickness and complications of malaria. These symptoms can last for months if not treated. In the following stages of lifecycle of malaria parasite, it is explained how malaria spreads to other persons.

Stage 4: A few of the red blood cells infected with merzoites stop replicating asexually and instead become male or female gametocyte (formations that develop into male or female parasite). These gametocytes start circulating in the bloodstream.

Stage 5: When a mosquito bites an infected person with gametocytes circulating in his blood, it ingests them. They go on to develop into mature sex cells called gamete. Male and female gametes combine to form what is called an oocyst.

Stage 6: In the last stage of the malaria parasite lifecycle, each of these oocysts forms several sporozoites in the body of the mosquito and reach its salivary glands. These sporozoites are again injected into the human blood when the mosquito bites and re-starts the whole cycle.