Mark's Gospel is an excellent example in the use of chiastic structures and parallel structures, demonstrating an impressive literary ability on the part of its author.
A chiastic structure is a literary sequence in which an opening set of events is contrasted with another set of events that mirrors the first, with the order reversed. A parallel structure is a literary sequence in which an opening set of events is contrasted with another set of events that parallels the first.The purpose of these structures is to link, by association, the two events of each pair in the minds of the readers, in order to create emphasis or develop a theme that would otherwise not be apparent.
This answer will deal with the following examples:
B .The baptism of Jesus (1:9)
C . The voice of God from heaven, "Thou art my beloved son" (1:11)
D . The forty days in the wilderness as an allusion to Elijah and Moses (1:13)
E . The people were astonished at what Jesus taught (1:22)
F . Jesus casts out an unclean spirit (1:23-26)
G . Pharisees took counsel with the Herodians how they might destroy Jesus (3:6)
H . Demons, whenever they see Jesus, fall down and say that he is the Son of God.
-- Jesus commands that they tell no one of this (3:11-12)
I .. Jesus calls the 12 disciples (3:13-19)
J .. Jesus rejects his own family: he has a new family, his followers (3:31-35)
K . Jesus rebukes the wind (4:36-41)
L . The demoniac, wearing no clothes (5:15), cries out that Jesus not torment him and Jesus sends out the demons (5:1-20)
M . Jesus comes into his own country (6:1)
-- Where he was brought up
N . The people misunderstand Jesus and he can do no mighty work (6:2-6)
O . Jesus sends out the disciples and curses those who will not receive them (6:7-11)
-- in sending the disciples with authority and expecting all to receive them, Jesus is asserting his own authority
P . Herod thinks that Jesus is John the Baptist risen from the dead (6:14)
Q . Herodias and her daughter conspire to kill John the Baptist (6:16-29)
R . Feeding the thousands, and related miracles and discourses (6:33-8:21)
S . Who do people say that I am (8:27)
T . Peter affirms faith in Jesus as the Christ (8:29)
U . Whosoever shall be ashamed of me: of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed (8:38)
V . The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and scribes (8:31a)
W . Be killed and after three days rise again (8:31b)
X . Prophecy of second coming (9:1)- Jesus tells the disciples that some of them would not taste death until they saw the kingdom of God coming with power.
B' .The Transfiguration of Jesus (9:2-3)
C' .The voice of God from heaven, "This is my beloved son" (9:7)
D' . Jesus talks to Elijah and Moses then to the disciples about Elijah (9:4-13)
E' .A great multitude was amazed at Jesus (9:15)
F' .Jesus cast out a dumb spirit (9:17-27)
G' .They shall kill the Son of man and he shall rise on the third day (9:31)
H' .Jesus clarifies his divine status, saying that he is not God: "Why call me good? There is none good but God" (10:18)
I' . Peter says the disciples have left all and followed Jesus (10:28)
J' . Those who have left their family for Jesus have a new family: all Jesus' followers (10:29-30)
K'. Jesus rebukes the 'sons of thunder', James and John (10:35-45 - cf 3:17)
L' .Blind Bartimaeus cries out for mercy and casts off his clothes, then Jesus heals him (10:46-52)
M' .Jesus comes into Jerusalem (11:1-10)
-- Where he will die
N' .Jesus misunderstands the fig tree that can provide no fruit (11:13-14)
O' .Jesus casts out them that sold and bought in the Temple and curses them for making the Temple a den of thieves (11:15-17)
-- Jesus is asserting his authority
P' .Jesus asks whether the baptism of John is from heaven or of men, and the priests, scribes and elders can not answer (11:30-33)
Q' .Parable of husbandmen who conspire to kill the vineyard owner's son (12:1-9)
X' .Prophecy of second coming (chapter 13)
-- on clouds of glory, within the lifetimes of some of those to whom he was speaking
R' .The Last Supper (14:17-25)
S' .Art thou the Christ, Son of God (14:61)
T' .Peter denies Jesus three times (14:66-72a)
U' .And when he thought thereon, Peter wept (14:72b)
V' .The chief priests, elders and scribes delivered Jesus to Pontius Pilate (15:1)
-- Delivering Jesus is a similar concept to rejecting him.
-- Both parts of the pair involve chief priests, elders and scribes
W' .Jesus dies and on the third day rises again (15:37, 16:6)
A' .The young man explains the departure of Jesus(16:6-8)
Note that Mark originally ended at 16:8, with the young man telling the women that Jesus was risen and they fled, telling no one, with no resurrection appearance of Jesus. Verses 16:9-25 form what is now known as the "Long Ending" (there was also, at one stage, a "Short Ending") and were added to the Gospel at a later stage, to provide resurrection appearances and to more or less harmonise it with the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Therefore, verses 16:8-25 do not form part of the chiastic structure of Mark's Gospel, and this chiastic structure encompasses the entire gospel, as defined by pair A.
In Mark 1:13, the story of Jesus going into the wilderness, where he was ministered by angels is an allusion to Elijah (1 Kings 19:5-7) who was ministered by an angel and in the wilderness forty days. There is no actual suggestion that Jesus fasted for this time, but those familiar with the story of Elijah are likely to have assumed he did do so, and this is made explicit in Matthew and Luke. This brings into play another allusion, to Moses when (Exodus 34:28) he fasted for 40 days while he wrote the words of the Ten Commandments on tablets. The author of Mark seems to have been adept at hidden messages, and this easily overlooked allusion neatly mirrors the Transfiguration in the second set.
Events E and F
In Mark's Gospel, some events not only form pairs across the chiasm, but also interact with each other. Mark repeatedly Sandwiches one narrative that stands on its own within another narrative that would seem entirely coherent without it, in the form A1-B-A2. This is an advanced literary technique known to scholars as Markan intercalation, or simply Markan sandwich, by which Mark could emphasise important theological themes. Here we begin with Jesus teaching in the synagogue and the people were astonished at what Jesus taught (Mark 1:21-21) - this is A1 (but also event E in the framework structure). A man with an unclean spirit was in the synagogue and Jesus drove the spirit out of him - this is event B in the intercalation (also event F in the framework structure). In verse 1:27, we return as A2 to the theme of the people amazed, with parallel usage of "teaching with authority" (KJV translates teaching as its synonym 'doctrine'). The effect of this intercalation is to greatly magnify the amazement of the people compared to verse 22 alone. Sandwiched between the two verses in which the people in the synagogue were amazed, the impact of the miracle of the exorcism is also enhanced. The reader can not fail to be aware that what Jesus taught was almost beyond human understanding.
It is impossible for the author of Mark to have known that event G occurred, but it opens an excellent chiastic pair: Pharisees took counsel with the Herodians how they might destroy Jesus ... They shall kill the Son of man and he shall rise on the third day. They will kill Jesus but they will not destroy him.
In Mark's Gospel, only outsiders call Jesus the Son of God*. Jesus refers to himself as the Son of Man, while Peter calls him the Christ (anointed one). In 3:11-12, the demons fall down and call Jesus the Son of God, but Jesus is quick to instruct them to tell no one, thus no more than an implied admission. The demons would know Jesus' divine status, but if this was a blasphemy then they were outsiders and brought no disrepute upon the Christian community. In the matching event of the pair (10:18), Jesus once again clarifies his status, saying that he is not God yet not denying that he is the Son of God.
*Verse 1:1 does have the author call Jesus the Son of God. This is not present in some early manuscripts and it is possible that it was not original.
Pair J uses the example of Jesus in the first passage to comfort those Christians of the author's own time who had been rejected by their families, or who had left their families to become wandering preachers or commune members. However, in verses 3:31-35, Event J, Mark risks portraying Jesus as callous or out of his mind when he sends his brothers and his mother away, proclaiming that he has a new family. This is negated because the passage is part of a local chiastic structure in which Jesus' friends, the scribes and perhaps his family are concerned about the mental state of Jesus, but Jesus proves that he is not possessed by the devil: JaThe multitude is so thick that they could not so much as eat bread (3:20)JbJesus' friends say he is beside himself (3:21)JcScribes say Jesus is possessed and by the devil casts out devils (3:22)JdHow can Satan cast out Satan? (3:23)JeIf a kingdom be divided the kingdom can not stand (3:24)Je'If a house be divided the house can not stand (3:25)Jd'If Satan is divided he can not winJc'Because they said he has an unclean spirit (3:30)Jb'Jesus' family comes to him. Jesus says his followers are his family (3:31-35)Ja'The multitude is so thick that Jesus enters a boat (4:1)
Pair J also risks portraying Jesus as opposed to the traditional concept of family, by encouraging his followers to leave their families. Right on cue, Jesus is given several opportunities to show his commitment to family:
The celebration of the Passover Feast, which becomes the Last Supper, beginning "when it was evening" (Mark 14:17), or when the sun went down: approximately 6 pm and the beginning of the day of the Passover by Jewish reckoning. Jesus says, "This is my body," a metaphor that will be reflected in his burial.
-- Mark knew that the duration of the Passover meal was three hours and that it concluded with the singing of a hymn.
When was about 9 p.m. Mark then has Jesus and the disciples go to the Garden of Gethsemane, where Jesus went to pray. He suffered alone and in agony, asking God that, if possible, he take this cup (his destiny to be crucified) away from Jesus.
-- Meanwhile his disciples, Peter, James and John, were not able to remain awake.
-- "Could you not watch one hour?" Jesus asked. The process was repeated two more times. The disciples could not watch one, two or three hours. It was now midnight.
The betrayal of Jesus, the darkest deed in human history, came next, occurring at the stroke of midnight.
This will be reflected by the darkness at midday.
At 3:00 a.m., Jesus was led away for a trial before the high priest and other senior priests and elders.
-- We know the time of the first trial because Peter's threefold denial of Jesus followed, once each hour until the cock crowed, marking the watch between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m., known as cockcrow.
When it was 6 o'clock, "As soon as it was morning", Jesus was led by the chief priests, scribes and elders for trial by Pontius Pilate.
At the trial, Pontius Pilate sentences Jesus to be crucified.
At 9 o'clock: "It was the third hour when they crucified him."
When "the sixth hour had come" (12 noon), darkness covered the whole earth, reflecting the betrayal at 12 midnight.
The three hours of darkness, until 3 p.m. mirror the agony in the Garden of Gethsemene. Jesus last words, "My God. My God, why hast thou forsaken me?" reflect the recognition that his prayer in the Garden has not been answered. At 3 o'clock Jesus cried out and gave up the ghost.
Joseph of Arimathea then asked Pilate for the body of Jesus, so that he could be buried before the Sabbath began at 6 p.m., when the sun went down.
The presence of 8 time periods of three hours means that there must be an odd number of events around them. I believe that Mark intended the trial before Pontius Pilate to be a 'crossover' event (shown as Dx) that is not really in either set, both mirroring the trial before the Sanhedrin (the last event of the first set) but also, by sentencing Jesus to be crucified, mirroring Jesus being crucified (thus the first event of the second set).
Several minor structures have been found in Mark's Gospel. In some cases the structures are undeniable, but in other cases the challenge is to ensure that the structure is real - did Mark intend a chiastic structure to exist or is it only evident in hindsight.
The story of the fig tree is an example of a well known chiastic structure used by Mark (11:12-21):
A Jesus takes authority over a fig tree by cursing it (11:12-14)
B Jesus takes authority over merchandisers at temple (11:15,16)
C My house will be a house of prayer for all nations (11:17a)
C' You have made my house into a den of robbers (11:17b)
B' Jewish leaders are losing their authority (11:18,19)
A' Disciples recognize Jesus' authority in the withered fig tree (11:20,21)
An example I would question is Mark 1:21-28, with its strained or over-generalised comparison of some pairs:
A. Location They went to Capernaum; and when the sabbath came, he the synagogue and taught. (1:21)
B. Teaching with Authority They were astounded at his teaching, for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. (1:22)
C. Unclean Spirit Just then there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit (1:23)
D. Dialog And he cried out, "What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the Holy One of God." (1:24)
D'. Dialog But Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" (1:25)
C'. Unclean Spirit And the unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. (1:26)
B'. Teaching with Authority They were all amazed, and they kept on asking one another, "What is this? A new teaching-with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him." (1:27)
A'. Location At once his fame began to spread throughout the surrounding region of Galilee. (1:28)
Google: the Structure of Luke's Gospel, David G Palmer
Marks gospel is a lion and it represents strength and power
Read the book....
in his head?
New Testament people
In the gospel account of the Transfiguration, Jesus took Peter, James and John up the mountain, where his appearance changed, and they saw him talking to Moses and Elijah. Afterwards he solemnly told them not to say anything about what they saw, to anyone.Scholars now know that the author of Luke's Gospel relied on Mark's Gospel for his knowledge of the life and mission of Jesus. Since the story of the Transfiguration is in Mark's Gospel, we can say that Luke knew about the Transfiguration from Mark's Gospel, as did Matthew and, indirectly, John. So, the mystery is how the author of Mark knew about the transfiguration, and the answer to this mystery is found in the chiastic structure of Mark. The author of Mark wanted to associate Jesus as closely as possible with Elijah and Moses, two of the most revered men in the Hebrew scriptures. He achieved this by linking the baptism of Jesus and his forty days in the wilderness with the Transfiguration and the appearance of Elijah and Moses on the mountain. By examining the chiastic structure of Mark we can establish that even the story of Jesus surviving forty days in the wilderness was an allusion to Elijah and Moses, each fasting for forty days.
A:Mark's Gospel was the first New Testament Gospel to be written and is now known to have been the major source used, directly or indirectly by the other three gospels in the New Testament. By discussing this Gospel first, it may be possible to gain a better understanding of the other gospels. Mark's GospelThe characteristic of Mark's Gospel comes from the literary genius of its author. Although superficially written in a rough, ungrammatical style, its author has been described as one of the greatest writers of his time. The Gospel consists of an overall chiastic structure, with a shorter chiastic structure for the last twenty four hours in the life of Jesus. The author developed an almost unique method of emphasis now known as Markan intercalation and used mimesis flags, an ancient Greek device often used to identify a source.The last week in the life of Jesus begins at chapter 11 and forms a substantial part of the entire Gospel, with the inevitable crucifixion as its dominant theme. The Gospel's chiastic structure structure leads us inevitably to the crucifixion of Jesus.Matthew's GospelThe dominant theme specific to Matthew's Gospel is that Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament. More than any other gospel, it uses references to the Old Testament to show that the life of Jesus was foreshadowed or even prophesied in the Hebrew scriptures.Luke's GospelA theme of Luke's Gospel is that the events surrounding the life of Jesus really happened, and that Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament. A further theme specific to Luke is that Christianity is for the poor. This Gospel characteristically seeks to place events in a historical context. Raymond E. Brown (An Introduction to the New Testament) says that while Luke likes to set his Christian drama in the context of well-known events from antiquity, he sometimes does so inaccurately.John's GospelJohn's Gospel is the most theological of the New Testament gospels. An important theme characteristic of this Gospel alone, is that Jesus was divine and pre-existing. Thus, the Gospel even opens by saying that in the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God. Two other important themes were 'doubting Thomas' and the primacy of the 'disciple whom Jesus loved' over Peter. Based on this, athough it is no longer readily apparent to a casual reader, John's Gospel was what we could now call a political document.
A:Superficially, Mark's Gospel was written in a rough, ungrammatical style, yet it could be described as a literary work of considerable genius. The entire gospel is developed around a parallel structure, and within this is a very elegant structure for the last twenty four hours to the crucifixion and burial of Jesus. The author also developed an almost unique method of emphasis now known as Markan intercalation. He also used mimesis flags, an ancient Greek device, often used to identify a source. Some have suggested that an author of this considerable ability must have written in the rough, ungrammatical style to hide his real identity (the gospel was anonymous until attributed to Mark in the second century). Footnotes 1A parallel structure is a literary sequence in which an opening set of events is contrasted with another, parallel set of events that mirrors the first. Mark's Gospel as a whole consists of a parallel structure and then contains a smaller chiastic structure around the last day and the crucifixion.
Because Mark's gospel is the word of God which is truth and his gospel states: Mark 1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God;
The Gospel of Mark is a historic document from eyewitness accounts of some of the important events in the life of Jesus. Mark's Gospel focuses on action and events, thus it is dynamic and fast moving. A large portion of the Gospel focuses on the final week before the crucifixion, and the climax of the account is the Resurrection of Christ.
There are about 28
Mark, who wrote the Gospel of Mark, was a disciple of Peter, who was a disciple of Jesus.
well there is no important words
Punctuation marks are marks used in English language to clarify the true meaning of the sentences or to structure and organize the sentences.
The word "gospel" means "good news," or "glad tidings." Not just Mark's, but all the gospels contain the good news of salvation through Jesus.
All Bible scriptures have authority for Christians. Since Mark's Gospel is also Holy Scripture inspired by God, it too has authority as God's word of truth.
anterior interventricular sulcus
aortic semilunar valve
Punctuation marks show the reader of a text the structure of the language. Punctuation marks show when to stop, pause and emphasis. Full-stops, commas and colons are examples of punctuation.
A:Mark's Gospel originally ended at verse 16:8, so the only reference to the resurrection of Jesus was the young man telling the women that he was risen and they fled in teror, telling no one. The other evangelists were not satisfied with such a short account and each provided his own elaboration. The 'Long Ending' (verses 16:9-30) was added much later, to provide the necessary appearances of the risen Jesus and to more or less harmonise with Matthew and Luke, but this is still a relatively short account compared to the other gospels.We can not know exactly why the author of Mark's Gospel ended his account with the discovery of the empty tomb, but a possible reason is that a further narrative would not have fitted into the chiastic structure of his narrative. A chiastic structure is a circular sequence in which an opening set of events is contrasted with another set of events that mirrors the first. In Mark's Gospel:The opening set begins with John explaining the coming of Jesus, followed by the baptism and the voice of God from heaven, and ends with Jesus predicting his death.The contrasting structure begins with the Transfiguration of Jesus and the voice of God from heaven, and ends with the crucifixion, followed by the young man explaining the departure of Jesus.So, the gospel ends as it began. For Mark, a longer ending would have required additional material before the present chapter 1 and could perhaps have reduced the emotional impact of the story.
When Jesus left the world and left Peter to lead the church. It says it somewhere in a gospel but I cant remember right now.