What is the densest substance in the world?

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About the best you can do with a substance that is stable at STP and thus to be found on Earth is with an alloy of osmium and iridium, which if proportioned correctly and crystallized correctly, has a density of around 22.7 grams per cubic centimeter. You can theoretically optimize it just a little more still, possibly passing 23 g/cm^3 by purifying the heaviest naturally occurring isotopes of each one, osmium-192 and iridium-193, though that would be an awful lot of trouble. It is not known exactly what mix of elements and crystal structure attains the absolute highest possible density. For instance some elaborate repeating structure involving all known elements that have densities over 20 grams/cm^3, namely osmium, iridium, platinum, rhenium and even neptunium, if you're willing to let it be radioactive, could do better than a binary mix of osmium and iridium. It is also possible to attain much greater densities if a solid is subjected to pressures exceeding its bulk modulus, as is for example the plutonium core of an implosion type A-bomb which is momentarily compressed by powerful explosions on all sides to densities in the range of 40 grams/cm^3, twice plutonium's regular density. As to whether you can make a shell hard enough (perhaps carbon nanotube composite) to compress some combination of materials that already have a high density and relatively low bulk modulus, and thus have a package of relatively small size that is significantly higher density than osmium or iridium, the answer to that lies in how large you're willing to have that package be. As fun as it would be to hand the postman a flat rate envelope that weighs 100 million tons, however, the jury says "it's not likely".

If we are off of the assumption that it has to be stable at STP or even stable in a vacuum, then of course the material comprising a neutron or quark star is the densest substance. It is widely believed that these objects have an "atmosphere" which is literally skin deep, followed by a crust of ordinary matter (and by ordinary, I mean it can't be that ordinary since the typical temperature at the surface of a typical neutron star surpasses 100000 K and the magnetic field density is so strong, atoms are crushed from spheres to long strings by the field lines) and then degenerate matter where electrons are partially crushed into the nuclei and mixed in with free neutrons, and then maybe a kilometer down, you get to neutronium, which some say may be pure neutrons, others that there may be free quarks mixed in (making it a 'quark star'). Which amazingly enough is actually a liquid, despite how you may have been misled by Star Trek to think it is an incredibly strong solid. But it takes a lot of pressure to maintain this state. It is a liquid such that if you took a teaspoon of it and transplanted it to Earth, not only would it have a mass of 1.13 billion tons, a little more than the weight of a cubic kilometer of seawater, but it would explode with such energy as it decomposed back to an appreciably smaller mass of regular matter that the oceans would boil and all life in the top mile of the Earth's crust would be turned to ash. No wonder Mary Poppins preferred a spoonful of sugar. How much pressure does it need to maintain this state? Consider that the top kilometer of the star before you get to the neutronium is still degenerate matter which already averages to millions of grams per cubic centimeter, hundreds of thousands of times denser than osmium, but all that mass is additionally under gravity which runs around 100 billion times that at the surface of the Earth. The pressure needed to bring matter to that state in terms of a sound wave would be something on the order of 600 or 700 decibels. So the next time someone invites you to a rock concert in the core of a neutron star, just say no. Or something clever like "I can't take that kind of pressure!" Incidentally, if you did have an inch-sized sphere of neutronium that was somehow stable and didn't explode with cataclysmic power, not only would its gravity be appreciable, but you would be pulled towards it with one Earth-gravity if you were 20 feet away or so. And if you got any closer, things would very quickly get messy.
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What is the densest gas?

I started looking for answers to this question. This is at standard air pressure at sea level. I assumed it would be radon, but surprisingly, carbon dioxide is denser. 1.98 kg/m^3 Anyone got a denser gas? I found a question on Yahoo Answers, "At STP, what is the densest gas known?" with this a ( Full Answer )

What is the densest element?

Osmium. It is so dense, a pellet of osmium weighs 22 grams!!!!!!! By contrast, the same size of that in water would weigh 1 gram!!!

What is the worlds most toxic substance?

That's totally wrong, the most toxic substance known to man is Botulin toxin, from the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulin is approx 1000 times more toxic than TCDD, and TCDD is also less toxic than polonium 210. No man made substance has come close to beating the toxicity of a certain bacteria ( Full Answer )

What is the densest metal on earth?

There's something of a debate, but the general consensus is that osmium is just a little bit denser than iridium. Osmium is around 22.61g/cm 3 (grams per cubic centimetre,) but Iridium is around 22.56g/cm 3 . The two have switched places for first and second in the leader-board of densest metals se ( Full Answer )

What is the densest wood?

I have had many arguements about this question over the years.one thing i realized is a lot of people beleive that a strongerwood equals a denser wood. this is not so. If you are talking woodDENSITY then you are talking about wood fibers that are groupedcloser together. those wood fibers might not b ( Full Answer )

What is the densest layer of Earth's atmosphere?

The troposphere, where all weather occurs, is the lowest and densest layer in the atmosphere It is the lowest atmospheric layer. It is also the densest layer,containing 90% of the atmosphere's total mass. Almost all of theearth's carbon dioxide, water vapor.

Which country has the densest population?

The country of Malta has the highest population density. They have1,282 people per square kilometer. They have a population of404,039 people.

Where is water densest?

Liquid water has a maximum density at about 4 degrees Celsius, if that's what you're asking.

What is the densest man made element?

Probable neptunium with a density 0f 20,45 g/cm 3 ; the density of chemical elements with greater atomic numbers is rarely known.

What is the most toxic substance in the world?

It's a toxin produced by a bacterium... Botulinum toxin is the most acutely toxic substance known, with a lethal dose of about 200-300 picogram of toxin per kg of bodyweight. It is the toxic compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. A picogram is One-trillionth (1x10 -12 or 0. ( Full Answer )

Why is earth the densest planet?

It is the largest rocky planet and the heat from formation along with the so-called 'iron catastrophe' which re-melted the entire planet caused crushing compaction of the interior, making it the most dense planet in the solar system.

What is the slipperiest substance in the world?

A substance called BAM (Boron Aluminium Magnesium). It is a ceramic alloy discovered in 1999 by Bruce Cook. It has a coefficient of friction of 0.02. Teflon has a coefficient of 0.05.

Where would mantle rock be the densest?

At the bottom of a graphic organizer that show relationship among heat, movement, and density in mantle rock. Also when it sinks the mantle rock starts to be heated up once again.

Why is Neptune the densest gas giant?

We're not certain. It may be that since Neptune is the farthest gas giant from the Sun, and cold gasses become more dense.

Which 3 countries have the densest Muslim population in the world?

Most Muslim countries report 99-100% of their population is Muslim. The countries with the largest Muslim population are Indonesia, Pakistan, and India, even though they are 88, 95, 13.5% Muslim, respectively. Countries that report being 100% Muslim are: Saudi Arabia & Somalia, with Afghanistan, Ma ( Full Answer )

Which foods are the densest in protein?

Animal sources tend to be higher biological value protein than plant sources, as animals' needs are closer to those of humans than the protein requirements of a plant. Eggs and milk contain high biological protein because they are the only sources of nutrition for the relevant young animals so they ( Full Answer )

Which is the second natural hardest substance in the world?

The second hardest substance in the world is mineral lonsdaleite,or hexagonal diamond. It's made up from the same materials asdiamonds, but it has a slightly different structor. Minerallonsdaleite is extremely rare in nature.

What is the most radioactive substance in the world?

In general, those would be the substances that have the shortest half-life. There are lots of isotopes that decay in less than a second; in some cases, the half-life can be a millionth of a second, a billionth of a second, or even less. You can find some information about such isotopes in the Wikipe ( Full Answer )

Where is the densest part of the earth?

the inner core(which is the center solid part of the core) is the has the most density. its what everything else on the planet is pulled towards because of its gravitational pull.

Where are the densest water found?

If you are comparing the composition densities of water, i it is the one that contains tritium amounts. The usual water contains the normal hydrogen (protium).

When is water at its densest?

Water is most dense at 4C (around 39F). Any colder or warmer, and the water's density begins to decrease. This is due to the shape and polarity of the water molecules. The very electronegative oxygen and the lone pair make the molecule into the bent shape (v-shape) with O being the "point" of the v. ( Full Answer )

Can you please use densest in a sentence?

Which planet is the densest in our Solar system? The densest gas will drop to the bottom of the glass. Is the Amazon jungle the densest in the world?

Is planet Mars the densest planet?

Not at all. Mars is the least dense of the rocky planets. Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System because of its large iron core. Mercury and Venus are only slightly less dense. All of the Gas giants are much less dense than the rocky planets. The least dense, Saturn, is actually less den ( Full Answer )

Is Teflon the slipperiest substance in the world?

Yes, Teflon is considered the most slippery material in existence. It was accidentally invented by Roy Plunkett on April 6, 1938. It is also insoluble in almost everything. It doesn't char or melt in extreme heat. Teflon doesn't rot, swell, mildew, mold or degrade in sunlight.

The densest region of an atom is the?

The nucleus is the densest region in an atom. Within the nucleus a neutron is more dense than a proton IF they have the same measures, which is not easily to tell.

What is the densest subset of real numbers?

"Densest" is not really an applicable term here. I take it you mean "has the highest cardinality?" In this cast there are an infinite number of these. A theorem states (I forget the name) that a subset of a set can have at most the same cardinality of that set. So we need a set S such such that S â ( Full Answer )

What is the densest populated city?

Tokyo. Also, Tokyo is the most populous city in the world, with about 36 million people in its metropolitan area.

Where is the densest place in the ocean?

the most densest region of the ocean is inside the red rectal system galaxy of the 3rd quadrant. the last time me and the homeboys went there yall homies were all up in my grizzle. word.

What is the densest metal alloy in exsistance?

Perhaps an alloy of Osmium and Iridium, the two densest metals known. however I suspect an alloy of Iridium with an interstitial dopant in solid solution (perhaps a small element which could fit between the iridium atoms) might be more dense. Osmium is quite toxic when oxidised so I wouldn't bother ( Full Answer )

What is the synonym for densest?

Possibly 'thickest' but dense has a particular meaning and does not lend itself to being substituted with synonyms. Other meanings of the word could include the following ~ Synonym.com also suggest impenetrable, heavy, dull, dumb, obtuse slow.

Why is Antarctica bottom water the densest in the world?

The mineral content, including oxygen, is highest in the bottomwater of the Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica, making itdense. It is caused by the oxidation of deteriorating organiccontent in other deep oceans. Some say that this bottom water isthe ventilation system for earth's deep oceans.

Why the earth is the densest planet?

Earth is the densest planet due to a combination of its mass andits composition. Earth is a terrestrial planet, meaning it iscomposed primarily of rock and has a core made of metal. The rockand metal composition right away make it denser than the four mostmassive planets; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, an ( Full Answer )