Asked in New Testament
What is the difference between the Holy Spirit and conscience?
What Science still has not been able to understand is the human mind. This is what distinguishes us from all other living matter. Humans know that we know and we have boundless imagination and abilities. Yet there is a spirit in man as the Scripture says which is like a great computer that empowers the mind and records all events. We each have the ability to learn the knowledge of the 'tree of good and evil' as our 1st parents did in the Book of Genesis.
But man is incomplete and needs God's Holy Spirit (aka the Spirit of Christ) to be begotten into the God Family. In John's Gospel, he speaks several times of God the Father and Christ Himself, coming into the converted Christian, begetting them and helping him/her in this world by growing spiritually like a human embroy grows physically from inception. This is exactly what our perfect example, Jesus had happen to Him as the now only begotten of the Father. We are promised if we hold true to the end, to be changed in a flash into spiritual sons and daughters of the God Family - truly born again.
Refusing God's Holy Spirit or losing it after receiving it by willful disobedience, will condemn the individual and their conscience to die the 2nd and final death in the Lake of Fire during the final Resurrection.
One could say that all people, regardless of what religion they follow (if any), have a conscience that guides them to do good and avoid evil, while Christians say it is the Holy Spirit that guides them to do good and avoid evil. It would seem that conscience and the Holy Spirit work in the same way, with the same influence on the person. Ultimately, the difference is a matter of faith.