What is the lexical similarity percentage between English and Dutch?
Lexical similarity percentages vary dramatically based on who is doing the study and what words are being compared. But many studies show that Dutch has at least a 60% lexical similarity to English.
How do you know if two language varieties are dialects of the same language or dialects of different languages altogether?
Lexical verbs express action or state -- run, walk, feel, love auxiliary verbs accompany a lexical/main verb to show tense or voice etc -- have run, had walked, has loved, was felt. Some verbs can be a lexical verb or an auxiliary verb eg have main verb -- I have a new car auxiliary verb - I have eaten my lunch.