What is the name of the armored soldiers in the medieval ages?
There were a very large number of armored soldiers, but I suspect you are asking about the Mounted Warriors that symbolize the Medieval Era, and those would be the Knights.
The simple answer is that the medieval period is also called the Middle Ages. There is some complexity, however. The period from the 5th through 10th centuries was called the Dark Ages, but the term Early Middle Ages is more common now. What used to be called the Middle Ages, a time from the 11th to 15th centuries, is now often counted as the High Middle Ages (1000 to 1300) and Late Middle Ages (1300…
The Middle Ages are also called medieval times. They are also called the Age of Faith. The meaning of the term Middle Ages varies, as in some places it is considered to be the time from 476, or so, to 1453. In other places, the Middle Ages are taken to mean the time from 1000 or 1066 to about 1400 or 1453, and the earlier time is called the Dark Ages.
I did some research on this and was unable to find medieval apple tarts. Nevertheless, apple pies did exist in the Middle Ages, and so did pastries of many kinds, custards, and so on. I think it is safe to guess that apple tarts existed, though possibly not by that name, and possibly, like most other medieval recipes, unrecorded.
Zealots were members of a Jewish sect known to be zealous about their religion and political beliefs. They are mentioned in ancient histories, but not after the first or second centuries. They probably were gone by the Middle Ages, or had changed into a somewhat different movement with a different name.
The Medieval time is often called the Dark Ages because of an extreme lack of innovation and education in Europe. Most noblemen and even kings didn't even know how to read, or how to write their own name! Luckily, ancient Roman and Greek knowledge that was preserved by the Arabs, along with the printing press, finally initiated education in Europe again, and lead to the Renaissance.
What was the name given to the groups that protected and set standards for merchants and crafts people in medieval towns?
Hawai'i was unknown to the Europeans during the Middle Ages, and so had no European name. It was inhabited by Polynesians who may have called the island chain something like "Owyhee" or "Hawai'i," which was what they were calling it in 1778 (long after the Middle Ages ended) when Captain James Cook discovered it and called it the Sandwich Islands. The name Hawaii was restored to the Islands in 1840.