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Answered 2011-05-06 02:54:12

Many viruses can infiltrate a host's DNA to replicate itself. An example of this is the AIDS virus.

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RNA viruses replicate in the cytosol.


The retroviruses are enveloped viruses that have two complete copies of sRNA. They also contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which uses the viral RNA to form a complementary strand of DNA, which is then replicated to form a dsDNA.This reaction is exactly the reverse of the typical transcription step (DNA -> RNA) in protein synthesis. This why they are called retroviruses.For virus replication to continue, the newly formed DNA must be transcribed into viral RNA that will function as mRNA for viral protein synthesis and be incorporated into new virions.To do so, the DNA must first migrate to the host cell nucleus and become incorporated into chromosomes of host cells. Such integrated viral DNA is known as a provirus.


The Viral DNA is Replicated Along With Host Cell DNA. Eventually, Viral DNA Seperate Out Of The Host DNA and Construct New Virus Particles.


In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA can maintain a separate existence from the host DNA, but the host DNA replicates the viral DNA. The replicated viruses eventually become so numerous that the cell bursts releasing the new viruses which can then affect more cells. Another viral mechanism, the lysogenic cycle, involves combining the viral DNA with the host DNA, which will be passed on to daughter cells during cell reproduction. Eventually, during unfavorable, conditions, the lytic cycle will occur, and the infected cells will start replicating viruses, which will then eventually cause the cell to burst, releasing the new viruses.



it becomes a part of the bacterial DNA and it can be replicated into the daughter cells. this cycle doesn't harm the bacterial cell but it can change into the lysis cycle and kill the host cell


it is viral and is caused by Hivor Reks attacking WBC cells


Being able to visualize cells in a blood smear allows for faster diagnosis of certain viral diseases. Viruses can be seen attached to a cell and identified.


By controlling the host cell's protein synthesis for production of viral protein.These viral proteins infect the adjacent cells of host cell.


There are two types of infections bacterial and viral. Viral infections are hard to treat, because they are inside the blood cells.


Bacterial or Viral infections are a couple of ways cells are damaged or killed.


Viral Infections are diagnosed by the presence of the immune systems production of antibodies, viral fighting cells produced specifically for that specific virus.


Viral infections are caused by viruses, which are not living organisms. They are a protein mass with RNA attached to it. Antibiotics do not work on viruses because they are not living, and the only way to be cured of a virus is to wait it out and have your white blood cells and antibodies fight it off.


None. It's a viral enzyme.


The virus infects and kills cells when it reproduces. When the immune system sees the virus and the fragments of dead cells it responds by producing free antibodies and bound antibodies attached to killer T cells. When the bound antibodies recognize infected cells the killer T cells kill the infected cells to suppress further viral reproduction. Free antibodies bind free virus particles into inert clumps to stop further infection.So the viral infection damages the body two ways: directly and indirectly via the immune response. Often the indirect damage caused by the immune system is more severe than the direct viral damage.


No, Blood Agar does not support viral cultivation. If you have a nutrient agar plate with a lawn of cells coating the surface, you could add viruses to the lawn and the viral culture will survive on the plate by infecting the cells in the lawn, clearing them as the cells are lysed. The areas of clearance on the plate are called plaques.


Viral diseases are caused by viruses which live in our cells as a host. So, killing them by antibiotics means killing our own cells. This is why antibiotics are not effective against viral diseases.


Interferon binds to neighboring cells and stimulates these cells to produce antirival proteins which can prevent viral replication in these cells



No. They simply infect cells, and release viral DNA and capsid protiens. Cellular enzymes replicate viral DNA and transcribe viral DNA into viral mRNA--which use more host enzymes to make more viral proteins. New capsids and viral DNA self-assemble in the cell.


A laboratory test. For a viral culture, sputum is mixed with commercially-prepared animal cells in a test tube. Characteristic changes to the cells caused by the growing virus help identify the virus.


Some plant viruses and some bacterial viruses have RNA genome .


This cycle is called the lysogenic cycle. The other cycle that kills the cell is called the lytic cycle.


when they are born the cells are created by their parents' genes. So they are there when the animal is formed.


all cells except for the viral cell



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