What role does the endoplasmic reticlum play in protein synthesis?
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of membranes running through the cytoplasm and taking up most of its space. In some areas, these tube-like structure are flattened with sacs at the top. Rough ER (with ribosomes attached) are involved in producing and secreting proteins such as while blood cells that produce antibodies and digestive cells that produce enzymes. Smooth ER (with no ribosomes attached) produce lipids and fats. These are common in cells that…
Although rRNA is paramount in the process of translation, protein factors also are required for the efficient synthesis of a protein. Protein factors participate in the initiation, elongation, and termination of protein synthesis. P-loop NTPases of the G-protein family play particularly important roles. Recall that these proteins serve as molecular switches as they cycle between a GTP-bound form and a GDP-bound form.
Ribosomes play a huge part in protein synthesis and are required for cells to build up the structural and functional proteins they require. Bacteria cells do contain ribosomes floating in the cytoplasm rather than on the rough endoplasmic reticulum like in eukaryotic cells. Note that there would be many ribosomes rather than just one.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, the enzyme that is the site of protein synthesis in all living cells. Ribosomal RNA provides a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and interacts with tRNAs during translation. The tRNAs bring the necessary amino acids corresponding to the appropriate mRNA codon.
mRNA is messenger RNA. mRNA is transcribed from DNA, and carries coding information to the ribosomes. Here, the RNA is translated into a protein. In mRNA genetic information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides arranged into codons. Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons that terminate protein synthesis. This process also requires transfer RNA (tRNA) which mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid.