To become a cartoonist, I think you would need to have a very creative personality. Though it's not exactly an artistic talent, you'd have to be a fairly social character with a good sense of humor. You need to be able to draw funny pictures and make them colorful.
You need to have a creative mind and a visual impact of things in different ways. you need to have an eye for details and a god colour vision. and of course, stamina and patience. if you don't have those basic skills, you are dead in cartoons!!!
A cartoonist has many different skills. Not only does a cartoonist know how to draw, but they have the ability to understand computer animation, drawing, art tools, humor and wit, writing for dialogue in cartoons, and know current topics and current events.
I do not think that you need certain qualifications. But it will depend on what you want to do. If you want to become a newspaper cartoonist, you probably don't need anything. But for an animatior you probably need an art degree.
A cartoonist needs to know how to draw people and animals in a cartoon version. If you want to be a cartoonist, I suggest taking art lessons to understand how to draw the basic shapes of humans and animals, otherwise, you would be a bad cartoonist if you don't understand how to draw these!