Hi there bamboo grows faster in soil as it is a type of grass and grass grows faster in soil than any where else mainly because all of the nutrients vitamins and minerals in the soil which help the plant grow faster and healthier such as we all need the right balance of foods to grow better.
Yes some plants like acid soil and some like alkaline soil - if you try to grow a plant liking one type in the wrong soil it will die. This is extreme but many plants are very sensitive to the soil type in which they grow while others just seem to grow anywhere!
Roses need full sun and a lot of water to grow. Roses can grow in just about any type of soil. Roses do need a lot of care to thrive. Cutting away dead branches and flowers is a must for the roses to flourish.
It all depends on what type of plant you want to grow, e.g. acid loving, free draining. Most soils can be improved with compost or grit, you just need to find out what the plants you want to grow need.