What was a result of the Thirty Years' War?

  • Bohemian Phase Results (1618-25): Ferdinand Habsburg disposed, Frederick V took the crown
  • Danish Phase Results (1625-28): Ferdinand II succeeded in uniting the Lutherans and Calvinists against him
  • Swedish Phase Results (1629-35): Protestant forces now occupied most of Central and Northern Germany
  • Franco-Swedish Phase Results (1635-48): Portuguese independence; Dutch destroyed Spain's Atlantic Fleet

Ultimate Result: The Peace of Westphalia