What was the negative effect of springfield rifle in ww1?

There really weren't any. The Model 1903 Springfield was an excellent rifle. Parts of the bolt mechanism shared technology with the German standard rifle, the Model 1898 Mauser, and the US rifle was built under license from the Mauser works. The main problem with the rifle might be the rear sight, which had adjustments for both elevation and windage, and might be a little bit complicated for novice shooters. The other main problem was that there were nowhere near enough of them to go around. The rifle was manufactured only at government arsenals, and at top speed only about 5,000 per month could be made. Before the end of the war the US actually had over one million combat troops in France, and another million on the way, so not everybody was going to get a Springfield. Commercial firearms manufacturers had entered into contracts with the British government in 1914 to produce Lee-Enfield rifles for the British Army, according to the British standard design in .303 caliber. These companies still had the machinery and only slight modifications were necessary for those companies to produce Enfield rifles in .30 caliber - the standard US .30-06. Many more US troops were armed with one of the "American Enfields" than had a Springfield. Sergeant York performed his heroic Medal of Honor feats with an American Enfield.