What was the population of the New England Colonies in 1700?
Colonial Anglo Population of New England through 1700
1650: 33,000 people
1678: 60,000 people
1706: 120,000 people
1734: 250,000 people
1762: 500,000 people
1790: 1,000,000 people
Population growth after 1640 was largely internal.
Source: Primarily: Genealogical Notes on the Founding of New England, Ernest Flagg, 1926.
This seems a pretty good estimate for the Anglo population. We have no way of accurately recording the number of Native Americans in New England. As many as 3,000 were killed during the Metacomet (King Phillip's) war - all of the statistics are like this, negative. Because of introduced small pox and viral hepatitis epidemics this population had already crashed before the English showed up in settlement numbers.