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Five great empires entered World War One, and only one emerged. Germany, Austro-Hungary, Russia and the Ottomans all lost their empires as a result of the war. Germany was shorn of its colonies at the Versailles Peace Conference and a republican democracy was created. The Kaiser abdicated and the Hohenzollern throne was no more. The Hapsburgs had ruled in central Europe for hundreds of years, and their "Dual Monarchy" in Austria-Hungary was broken up into smaller nations. The Ottoman Empire had ruled Asia Minor and the Middle East for four hundred years. The Middle East was taken away and divided into new nations, and mandated territories under the League of Nations under French and British control. All that remained of the once vast and powerful Ottoman Empire was Turkey, and the Sultan was dethroned. The Romanov dynasty in Russia did not survive even until the war was over. The Soviets took over Russia, ending hundreds of years of Czarist rule, and imposed a communist regime that lasted for seventy years and forced the Cold War upon the rest of the world.

Germany was forced to "admit" at Versailles that it was solely responsible for World War One, a judgment which is not entirely accurate but which was in accord with French feelings and a vindictive desire to punish the Germans. The harsh terms imposed on Germany, the reparations demanded, ensured that German resentment would simmer and the world would be treated to a sequel, which came to pass within a generation.

Britain managed to hang on to its empire but was vastly weakened. The nation was bankrupted by the immense expenditure of treasure in fighting the war.

France was similarly devastated. As in Britain, an entire generation of young men was in the cemeteries or maimed for life, with spirits broken by the horrific ordeal of the western front. The Treasury was empty. Most of the fighting on the western front had taken place in France, and the land was ravaged, pocked with craters, poisoned with gas and full of metal shell fragments. Cities, towns and villages were insignificant heaps of rubble. To this day there exists a "Zone Rouge" in France where the land is uninhabitable, though it shrinks every year, the soil so poisoned by the war that it cannot support life. Farmers in parts of France and Belgium require armored tractors to plow their land, so they will not be killed when their plows strike and detonate long-buried unexploded artillery shells from the Great War. Someone is still killed every year from this menace, though efforts have been continuous over the last ninety years to find these explosives. For a generation after the war people made a living gleaning metal shell fragments from the battllefields for scrap metal recycling.

The United States was deeply disillusioned by its experience. The people of the US had thought to settle this horror between "civilized" people so that the rule of reason could return and peace be nourished. The bitter, greedy squabbling of the peace process and the vulgar grasping that went on there convinced most in the US that the effort had been wasted, and that Europe was irredeemable. Most people in the US wanted to go back to the way things had always been, with the US minding its own business, taking little part in international affairs, and certainly none in the incessant bloodbaths of Europe, which , after all, many of their ancestors had crossed the ocean to escape. The United States wanted only a "return to normalcy" and isolationism.


Northern France after the war was in receipt of clothing from England

For a period of time most of the affected nations were involved in the formation of the League of Nations, proposed and spearheaded by the United States under the aegis and will power of President Woodrow Wilson.

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โˆ™ 2009-10-20 01:40:02
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Q: What were the effects of World War 1 on Germany Great Britain France Austria-Hungary Russia the United States and the Ottoman Empire?
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