What year did Germans arrive in Australia and where did they settle?

The first wave of German immigrants in the 1830s came to escape the persecution of King Friedrich Wilhelm the third of Prussia who wanted them to join the state church rather than to carry on their own religion.

Thanks to a wealthy Scottish businessman and chairman of the South Australian Company, George Fife Angas, a deal was struck by Pastor August Kavel to start a new Lutheran settlement in South Australia. The first group of Lutherans arrived on the ship 'Bengalee' in November 1838, followed two days later by the main group on the 'Prince George'. They first settled at the town of Klemzig. Many more ships followed over the next three years.

Immigrants continued to arrive in the 1850s, when the persecution had already ceased, because the farmland was producing poorly and becoming overcrowded and famine conditions prevailed in the 1840s. Greater opportunities for affordable land ownership were available, especially in South Australia, and also in area of the Riverland in New South Wales. Good reports had been received by then from the earlier immigrants. Many also had memories of the warfare occurring at that time. Some wanted to avoid the compulsory drafting into the military.