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The answer cover the two world wars in which both Italy and Germany participated in.

World War I : Italy versus Central Powers

Italy fought the Central powers in World War I, in an attempt to consolidate their northern borders. They defeated Austria-Hungary despite the efforts of the German Empire. Italy joined the Triple Entente on April 26, 1915, and declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 23, 1915.

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World War II : When Allies Invaded, Italy Turned against Germany

King Victor Emmanuel, leader of post-Fascist Italy, declared war on Germany Oct. 13, 1943. The part of Italy that Victor Emmanuel controlled was only the part that the Allies had liberated by that date. But as Allied Forces moved up the boot of Italy, more and more of Italy's resources were utilized in the Allied war effort towards Italy's former partner in the Axis.

The Italian Royalists against the German Puppet State

The Italians of the "Kingdom of the South" were considered "co-belligerents" by the Allies. Thus not actually allies, and not part of the allied forces. They are often referred to as "Royalist troops". The first such troops were created on September 28, 1943, and saw action in the Cassino sector (Monte Lungo).

Existing simultaneously was the Italian Social Republic, created on September 18, 1943, fighting on the Axis side until the end. It only fielded about 60,000 frontline troops (then again the Kingdom of the South's peak strength was about 22,000 men on the Allied side). But Mussolini had large bodies of paramilitary fascist troops in an internal security role.

Italian History in World War II

Benito Mussolini was the dictator of Italy and he signed a pact with Hitler in 1939 to be their ally. The war started soon after that and Italy began to lose men and equipment. Then when the war reached Sicily, an island that belongs to Italy, and when the Allies began bombing Italy and especially Rome, the people rebelled against the Germans and Fascists. Italy had a king, King Victor Emmanuel II, who did not run the country.

On July 24, 1943, The Fascist Party held a meeting. After a 2-hour speech by Mussolini, his son-in-law, Ciano, made a motion to remove Mussolini from power. After 9 hours of debates, Mussolini demanded a roll-call vote and lost. The next day, Mussolini held a meeting with King Emmanuel, and the King simply asked Mussolini to step down. Mussolini had been physically sick and so he just agreed to it. Mussolini was placed under arrest and General Badoglio was placed in temporary charge of the country and restored order. There was very little revolt by the Fascists.

The Germans expected something was up. The Italian Government began secret negotiations with the Allies to switch sides. Many in the Allied command did not trust Italy and demanded unconditional surrender. There was talk of dropping US paratroopers into Rome so they could help the Badoglio government take control of the German troops. The Allied landing force departed for their attack on the Italian mainland at the Salerno beaches (on Sept. 9, 1943). Time ran out for Italy to make a decision. Italy announced they would surrender to the Allies.

The Germans initiated Operation ACHSE to disarm all the Italian soldiers in Italy and abroad. Many Italians were executed and 615,000 Italians were transported to German labor camps. Within a few weeks, German reinforcements crossed over the Alps into Italy and took control of the country. The Italian Government of General Badoglio declared war on German on October 13, 1943, thus becoming an Allied co-belligerent, though not an ally.

As the Allies advanced up from the "toe" of Italy, they took over more and more of the southern half of Italy. The ex-Italian soldiers were put into service with the Allies and used as translators and to carry supplies on mule trains up the steep mountains. Eventually, the Italians were armed by the British and these were the co-belligerent forces or sometimes called the "army of the South". They formed into 4 combat groups and were sent into combat towards the end of the war.

Benito Mussolini was still in charge of the Fascist elements loyal to him and he remained allied to the Germans. He really had no power and was a puppet government. He re-organized the combat troops under a new name: RSI - Italian Social Republic, consisting of the ENR and GNR. The ENR was organized into 4 divisions. The GNR was formed as a new Fascist militia to replace the Black Shirts (MSVN). They were the primary anti-partisan security force.

Italian soldiers essentially had 3 choices : 1) head north behind the front lines and fight with Mussolini and the Germans, 2) head south of the lines and fight for the co-belligerent forces, or 3) serve as a partisan fighter.

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Q: When did Italy declare war on Germany?
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Related Questions

When did Italy and Germany declare war in the US?

in 1942


When did the US declare war on Germany and Italy?

Germany and Italy declared war on the US on Dec. 11, 1941 after the US declared war on Japan because of the bombing of Pearl Harbor on the 7th. The United States never did declare war on Germany/Italy.


When did the US declare war on Japan Germany and Italy?

The US declared war on Japan on December 8, 1941, but did not declare war on Germany and Italy. They declared war on the US on December 10, '41.


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After the US declared war on Japan because of Pearl Harbor Germany/Italy in turn declared war on the US.


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Italy and Romania declared war on the Soviets at the same time as Germany was because Italy and Romania were with Germany in the Axis alliance.


When did Germany and Italy declare war on the US?

December 11, 1941


When did Germany and Italy declare war on US?

December 11, 1941


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December 11th, 1941


Why did Germany declare war on the US after Pearl Harbor when they had nothing to do with it?

Germany had a pact with Japan and Italy.


When did US declare war on Germany and Italy in World War 2?

America didn't declare war on Germany and Italy, it was the other way round. As part of the Axis Pact, once war was declared between the empire of Japan and the United States, Germany and Italy declared war on America on the 11th of December 1941, 4 days after the attack on Pearl Harbour.


Who did the US not declare war on in World War 2?

Germany, Italy and the other minor Axis nations. The only nation the US did declare war on was Japan, the day after Japan attacked the US Naval Base at Pearl Harbor. Three days after the US declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy declared war against the US. That was enough to bring about a state of war between the US and Germany and Italy. There was no need for Congress to declare war back.


Which country did Germany invade prompting Britain and France to declare war and world war 2?

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The US did not declare war on Germany and Italy, although it would have been justifiable to do so since they had a formal alliance with Japan. The US declared war on Japan. A few days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the US. The above answer is missing an important factor in all this: America was the only country Germany declared war on! Germany, Italy and Japan formed the Axis, and as Germany was allied with Japan it was only natural that as soon as America declared war on Japan, Germany would declare war on America. The same can be seen in action against Germany. France and England were allied with Poland. As soon as Germany invaded Poland England and France Declared war on Germany.


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Why did germany declare war on france?


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Germany and Italy were honoring the non-aggression pact that they had signed with Japan .


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Why did Germany an Italy declare war on the us?

They were allied to Japan. After we were attacked at Pearl harbor we Declared War on Japan. The other Axis Powers, i.e., Germany and Italy, decalred war on us in turn.


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Why did Germany declare war on the United States after the United States declare war on Japan?

Japan, Germany, and Italy formed the Axis Powers in World War II, therefore, due to their alliance, a declaration of war against one was perceived as a declaration against all. Germany and Italy formalized this by declaring war on the United States in retaliation for their declaration of war on Japan.


Why did the US declare war on Germany after England did?

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Actually Germany declared war on America first. Immediately after Pearl Harbor, which was on 7th December 1941.


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