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When was the black-and-white television invented?

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βˆ™ 2006-08-09 12:51:42

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This isn't an easy question to answer because there were several people involved in inventing the black and white TV and these people should be mentioned because we would not have the technology we do today without them. 1831 Joseph Henry's and Michael Faraday's work with electromagnetism makes possible the era of electronic communication to being. 1862 Abbe Giovanna Caselli invented his "pantelegraph" and becomes the 1st person to transmit a still image over wires. 1873 Scientists May and Smith experiment with selenium and light, this opens the door for inventors to transform images into electronic signals. 1876 Boston civil servant George Cary was thinking about complete television systems and in 1877 he put forward drawings for what he called a "selenium camera" that would allow people to "see by electricity." Eugene Goldstein coins the term "cathode rays" to describe the light emitted when an electric current was forced through a vacuum tube. Late 1870s Scientists and engineers like Palva, Figuier, and Senlecq were suggesting alternative designs for "telectroscopes." 1880 Inventors like Bell and Edison theorize about telephone devices that transmit image as well as sound. Bell's photophone used light to transmit sound and he wanted to advance his device for image sending. George Carey builds a rudimentary system with light-sensitive cells. 1881 Sheldon Bidwell experiments with telephotography, another photophone. 1884 Paul Nipkow sends images over wires using a rotating metal disk technology calling it the "electric telescope" with 18 lines of resolution. 1900 at the World's Fair in Paris, the 1st International Congress of Electricity was held, where Russian, Constantin Perskyi made the first known use of the word "television." Soon after the momentum shifted from ideas and discussion to physical development on TV systems. Two paths were followed: #1 Mechanical television - based on Nipkow's rotating disks, and #2 Electronic television - based on the cathode ray tube work done independently in 1907 by English inventor A.A. Campbell-Swinton and Russian scientist Boris Rosing. 1906 Lee de Forest invests the "audion" vacuu, tube that proved essential to electronics. The Audion was the first tube with the ability to amplify signals. Boris Rosing combines Nipkow's disk and a cathode ray tube and builds the first working mechanical TV system. 1907 Campbell Swinton and Boris Rosing suggests using cathod ray tubeds to transmit images independent of each other, they both develop electronic scanning methods of reproducing images. American Charles Jenkins and Scotsman John Baird followed the mechanical model while Philo Farnsworth, working independently in San Francisco, and Russian emigre' Vladimir Zworkin, working for Westinghouse and later RCA, advanced the electronic model. 1923 Vladmir Zworykin patents his iconscope a TV camera tube based on Campbell Swinton's ideas. The iconscope which he called an "electric eye" becomes the cornerstone for further television development. He later develops the kinescope for picture display. 1924-25 American Charles Jenkins and John Baird from Scotland, each demostrate the mechanical transmissions of images over wire circuits. Jenkins's Radiovisor Model 100 circa 1931, sold as a kit. Baird becomes the first person to transmit moving silhouette images using a mechanical system based on Nipkow's disk. Bladimir Zworykin patents a color television system. 1927 Bell Telephone and U.S. Dept. of Commerce condust the first long distance use of TV, between Washington D.C. and New York City on April 9th. Secretar of Commerce Herbert Hoover commented, "Today we have, in a sense, the transmission of sight for the first time in the world's history. Human genius has now destroyed the impediment of distance in a new respect and in a manner hitherto unknown." Philo Farnsworth files for a patent on the first complete electronic TV system, which he called the "IMage Dissector." 1928 The Federal Radio Commision issues the first TV license (W3XK) to Charles Jenkins. 1928 Vladimir Zworykin demonstrates the first practical electronic system for both the transmission and reception of images using his new kinescope tube. John Biard opens the first TV studio, however, the image quality was poor.1930 Charles Jenkins broadcasts the first TV commercial. The BBC begins regular TV transmissions. 1933 Iowa State University (@9XK) starts broadcasting twice weekly television programs in cooperation with radio station WSUI. 1936 About 200 hundred TV sets are in use world-wide. The introduction coaxial cable, which is pure copper or copper-coated wire surrounded by insulation and an aluminum covering. These cables are used to transmit TV, telephone and data signals. The 1st "experimental" coaxial cable lines were laid by AT&T between New York and Philadelphia in 1936. The first "regular" installation connected Minneapolis and Stevens Point, WI in 1941. The original L1 coaxial-cable system could carry 480 telephone conversations or one television program. By the 1970s, L5 systems could carry 132,000 calls or more than 200 TV programs. 1937 CBS begins TV development. The BBC begins high definition broadcasts in London. Brothers and Stanford researchers Russell and Sigurd Varian introduced the Klystron. A Klystron is a high-frequency amplifier for generating microwaves. It is considered the technology that makes UHF-TV possible because it gives the ability to generate the high power required in this spectrum. 1939 Vladimir Zworykin and RCA conduct experimentally boradcasts from the Empire State Building. TV was demonstrated at the New York World's Fair and the San Francisco Golden Gate International Exposition. RCA's DAvid Sarnoff used his company's exhibit at the 1939 World Fair as a showcase for the 1st Presidential speech (Roosevelt) on TV and to introduce RCA's new line of TV receivers - some of which had to be coupled with a radio if you wanted to hear sound. The Dumont company starts making TV sets. 1940 Peter Goldmark invests a 343 lines of resolution color TV. 1941 The FCC releases the NTSC standard for Black and white TV. 1943 Vladimir Zworykin developed a better camera tube - the Orthicon which had enough light sensitivity to record outdoor events at night. 1946 Peter Goldmark, working for CBS demonstrated his color TV system to the FCC. His sytem produced color pictures by having a red-blue-green wheel spin in front of a cathode ray tube. This mechanical means of producing a color picture was used in 1949 to broadcast medical procedures from Pennsylvania and Atlantic City hospitals. In Atlantic City, viewers could come to the convention center to see broadcasts of operations. Reports from the time noted that realism of seeing surgery in color caused more than a few viewers to faint. Although Goldmark's mechanical system was eventually replaced by a an electronic system he is recongnized as the first to introduce a broadcasting color TV system.

2006-08-09 12:51:42
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