There have always been governments. Originally, though it was just a tribe.
There hasn't always been governments, previous to establishment of governments people were self-sufficient living in small communities. Although it is not known exactly when the first government was established, the first recorded early governments appeared round about 5,000 years ago when the first small city-state began to emerge.
For thousands of years people lived as hunter-gathers, but after the last ice age they went on to establish sedentary villages, they were self sufficient in a stateless and classless society. Everyone was equal. This is what Karl Marx based his ideology on i.e. a return to this stateless, classless society.
Developments in agriculture led to a population increase with these villages growing into towns and cities then empires. Consequently, certain people felt the population needed to be keep under control thus the establishment of governments and inequality in wealth!
Alison BA (Hons)