When was the rise of Greek City States?
1100 to 800 B.C.
In ancient times, geography had a powerful effect upon the development of the Greek city-states. The dominance of water (the Aegean Sea and connected bodies of water) was one geographic influence, as it forced the Greeks to become experts at seafaring. The rugged terrain of the Greek peninsula was another influence, as it separated Greek societies and thereby encouraged the independence and variety that gave rise to such world-changing Greek cultures as the Athenian, the…
The Spartan-led Peloponnesian League, with Persian assistance, defeated the Athenian empire, Athens was stripped of its empire and became a second rate power, and sporadic warfare followed amongst varying alliances of the Greek city-states. This enabled the rise of Macedonia and its dominance of the weakened Greek city-states.
In Greek city-states, the idea of having an acropolis on top of a hill serving as a safe refuge or a religious temple, the idea of having an agora below the acropolis, having citizenship and having the citizens run the city-state developed in Greek city-states. Greek city-states also started using citizens as soldiers.
At the end of the Classical period, around 360 B.C., the Greek city-states were weak and disorganized from two centuries of warfare. (First the Athenians fought with the Persians; then the Spartans fought with the Athenians; then the Spartans and the Athenians fought with one another and with the Thebans and the Persians.) All this fighting made it easy for another, previously unexceptional city-state to rise to power.
The first was a strugle for supremacy amongs the Greek city-states. The second was the Greek city states resisting absorption into the Persian empire. The Peloponnesian war was a 27-year war between Greek city-states. The Persian War was a 50-year war between the Persian Empire and a ouple of hundred Greek city-states.
The Golden Age of the Greek City-states ended with the war. Addition: The Greek world from Sicily to Asia Minor was devastated and weakened. Athens lost its empire, and its strenght waned thereafter. Warfare continued spasmodically between the Greek city-states, the weakness first allowing the Persian empire to impose peace on them, and allowing the rise of Macedon to become the dominant power in the eastern Mediterranean.
Athens was stripped of its empire and became a second rate power. Sparta became temporarily dominant until defeated and displaced by Thebes. Fighting between Greek city-states continued on. Persia reasserted control of the Greek cities of Asia Minor. The weakened Greek city-states were unable to resist the rise of Macedonia.
The Greek city-states were in constant hostility between themselves. There were brief periods of solidity under foreign invasion, and shifting alliances between groups of cities, but warfare was normal. It took the rise of Macedonia to temporarily tame this, but it reverted to renewed divisions and warfare, eventually controlled by their eventual absorption into the Roman Empire which enforced peace.