The walls of the Old City of Jerusalem were last built by King Herod of the Roman Empire (also known as Herod the Great) Herod was responsible for the building and fortifying the old city, at that point in history, the only city of Jerusalem, the smaller city within Jerusalem known as the City of David and the famous mountaintop vacation palace turned Jewish stronghold called Massada. This buildup took place between 73 and 4 BCE during the time of the second great temple of the Jews. It has been discussed at great length, how old Jerusalem is and who was the first to fortify it. Most historians agree that Jerusalem was founded approximately 3000 to 3100 years ago (1300 BCE) by Cannanites and Amorites and named for one of their gods Salem or Shalem. Abraham, it is said, visited this city during this time. Jerusalem was said to have been first fortified 1000 years later by another group of Cannanites, the Jebusites. Calling the Walled part of the city the City of Zion. The walls that are seen today were the walls built by Herod toward the end of the last millineum BCE.