The driver at fault is always responsible for damages incurred during an accident. The at fault insurance company is responsible for damages to your car.
Depends. If said friend has insurance then in most cases their insurance will cover the damages due to vicarious liability. If the friend does not have insurance, you are then responsible for any damages caused.
You guessed it!
The owner of the car that caused your damages will be responsible to pay damages to you unless you live in a no-fault state. In that case, your insurance pays for your damages.
It depends on the state the accident occurred in. In California the renter is responsible. Again this varies by the state of the accident.
Once your insurance has paid, you are responsible for the rest.
The moral answer would be for him to pay for the damages that he caused.
Yes, as long as coverage is in place on the date of the incident.