When your body breaks down sugar completely how much heat is released compared to burning the same amount of sugar in a flame?
The body releases the same amount of heat.
When light passes through a prism how does the amount of bending of a light wave depend on the frequency of the light wave?
The question completely dissolves into nothingness when we recall that the frequency and wavelength of a wave are inextricably bound to each other. They don't change independently, and if you know one, then you know the other. So the "amount of bending" compared to frequency, and the "amount of bending" compared to wavelength, are necessarily identical.
Humidity is a measure of the amount of water vapor that air is holding compared to the amount needed for saturation at a specific temperature?
Negative feedback; decreases in pH inhibit Gastrin secretion, although far from completely. At pH 2.5, about half the amount is released compared to that at pH 5.5 - furthermore, this is an idealized situation and the loop is more complex, especially in the presence of pathology: in ulcer patients for instance, there is little pH dependent inhibition at all.
How does burning less fossil fuels reduce the amount of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere?
The amount of water on earth is so huge compared with any amount we use for various purposes, that it can be considered infinite, and a renewable resource. Water is consumed and broken down in some processes, and produced in others, like burning fossil fuels, but these are small amounts compared with what is in the oceans. If you limit the question to freshwater, there are sometimes shortages due to variations in the weather, but…