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A full timeline is very hard to piece together and would likely be hundreds of pages long. However I will make an attempt at touching some highlights:

  • 1822, Difference Engine #1, London England, special purpose mechanical digital computer (never built).
  • 1837, Analytical Engine, London England, programmable mechanical digital computer (never built).
  • 1849, Difference Engine #2, London England, special purpose mechanical digital computer (not built until 1991 by the London Science Museum).
  • 1931, Bush Differential Analyzer, MIT, programmable mechanical analog computer.
  • 1931, Mark XV Norden Bombsight, Carl L. Norden Company, special purpose electromechanical analog computer (gravity bomb fall solution).
  • 1938, Zuse Z1, Germany, programmable mechanical digital computer (floating point).
  • 1941, Zuse Z3, Germany, programmable electromechanical digital computer (floating point).
  • 1942, ABC, University of Iowa Ames Iowa, special purpose electronic digital computer (array/vector processor solving simultaneous equations up to 29 variables).
  • 1943, Torpedo Data Computer (TDC) Mark IV, Arma Corporation, special purpose electromechanical analog computer (submarine torpedo aiming solution).
  • 1944, Colossus Mark I, Bletchley Park, programmable electronic digital computer (cryptanalytic).
  • 1944, Harvard Mark I, Harvard, programmable electromechanical digital computer.
  • 1945, Zuse Z4, Germany, programmable electromechanical digital computer (floating point).
  • 1946, ENIAC, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia Pennsylvania, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1948, Manchester Baby, Victoria University of Manchester, programmable electronic digital computer (first computer built using a stored program).
  • 1949, CSIRAC, Australia, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1951, UNIVAC I, Remington Rand, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1951, UNIVAC 1101, Remington Rand, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1952, IBM 701, IBM, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1953, IBM 702, IBM, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1953, UNIVAC 1103, Remington Rand, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1953, IBM 650, IBM, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1954, IBM 704, IBM, programmable electronic digital computer (first US computer w/ floating point).
  • 1954, IBM NORC, IBM, programmable electronic digital supercomputer (usually credited as being the first supercomputer).
  • 1956, IBM 705 Model I, IBM, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1956, IBM 305 RAMAC, IBM, programmable electronic digital computer (w/ the first harddisk, the IBM 350).
  • 1957, UNIVAC 1104, Remington Rand, ruggedized programmable electronic digital computer (designed for the BOMARC missile but never used, replaced by a version of the AN/USQ-20, designated the G-40).
  • 1958, AN/FSQ-7, IBM, programmable electronic digital computer (part of the air force's SAGE air defense system, the largest computer ever built).
  • 1959, DEC PDP-1, DEC, programmable electronic digital computer (the first computer sold that focused on user interaction rather than just efficient use of computer time).
  • 1960, UNIVAC LARC, Sperry Rand, programmable electronic digital supercomputer (designed as a dual CPU computer but neither of the 2 systems built had the second CPU).
  • 1961, IBM 7030 Stretch, IBM, programmable electronic digital supercomputer, failed to meet its ambitious performance goals (100 times the speed of an IBM 704) so considered a failure and withdrawn from production with only 9 machines built, however it introduced many concepts and features present in many modern computers: the byte, memory protection, generalized interrupts, cache memory, instruction pipelining, prefetch and decoding, memory bank interleaving, etc.
  • 1961, AN/USQ-20, Sperry Rand, ruggedized programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1962, UNIVAC 1107, Sperry Rand, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1962, D-17B the Minuteman I missile guidance computer, Autonetics Division of North American Aviation, ruggedized programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1964, IBM System 360, IBM, programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1964, CDC 6600, Control Data Corporation, programmable electronic digital supercomputer, with over 600 systems built it is considered to be the first mass produced supercomputer.
  • 1964, D-37C the Minuteman II missile guidance computer, Autonetics Division of North American Aviation, ruggedized programmable electronic digital computer.
  • 1965, DEC PDP-8, DEC, programmable electronic digital computer (several versions small enough to fit on a desktop).
  • 1966, Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC), MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, ruggedized programmable electronic digital computer (moon landings).
  • 1971, IBM System 370, IBM, programmable electronic digital computer (used writable microcode storage, introduced the first floppy disc as a method of loading this microcode storage with microinstructions when the machine was turned on).
  • 1971, Intel 4004, Intel, first microprocessor available to the public.
  • 1974, STAR-100, Control Data Corporation, programmable electronic digital supercomputer (vector processor).
  • 1976, Cray-1, Cray Research, programmable electronic digital supercomputer (vector processor).
  • 1977, DEC VAX, DEC, programmable electronic digital computer (usually considered the pinnacle of the CISC architecture machines).
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