"Classical liberalism" is a recent coining by modern right-wing libertarians. The first known use is in the title of the 1962 translation of Mises' "Liberalismus": the term is not present anywhere else in the work. No evidence has been found for its use anywhere earlier. The term "classical liberal" is a propaganda ploy (unhappily adopted by some innocent academics) designed to convince us of authority and historicity of modern libertarian dogma. It's as if libertarianism needed papal succession to justify authority descended from Peter (Adam Smith) to modern popes (Mises, Hayek, Rand, etc.) There is no academic definition of Classical Liberalism, nor any agreement on who were the Classical Liberals, what comprises Classical Liberalism, or how it differs from the myriad modern libertarian sects. Instead, there is merely assertion of a great many conflicting opinions. The modern intent of usage by libertarians has a great many near-synonyms: Manchesterism, Austrian Economics, Free Market Fundamentalism, NeoLiberalism, etc. A loose but more reasonable definition might be liberalism of the 17th to 19th centuries: but that is based on time, not coherence to any set of principles. It would be hard to to find unified principles that included Locke, Smith, Rousseau and many other liberals if that period. Attempts at definition of Classical Liberalism have approached the task by donning ideological blinders and ignoring any liberals or aspects of liberalism that disagree with their preconceived definition. During the progressive era (around 1900), democratic progressive populist liberals were distinguished from free market fundamentalists as the new liberalism (and the others were the old liberalism.) Both groups can trace their ideas very clearly to their predecessor liberals in the preceding centuries.
Classical Liberalism: A tradition within liberalism that seeks to maximize the realm of unconstrained individual action, typically by establishing a minimal state and a reliance on market economics. Modern Liberalism: A tradition within liberalism that provides (in contrast to classical liberalism) a qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of prompting personal development
They're the same thing, even though some left wing people tend to claim the two are slightly incompatible. Classical Liberalism follows the works of John Locke, Adam Smith et al. Neo-Liberalism follows the works of Hayek, von Mises, Friedman et al. Neo-Liberalism is essentially the modern Classical Liberalism.
Classical Liberalism supports:- laissez-faire liberalism- limited government involvement- free market-capitalist society- individual property rights-individualismModern Liberalism supports:- government involvement-crade to grave welfare-free tradeBoth support freedom. Classical liberals believe that leaving everyone alone achieves the most freedom. Modern liberals believe that unless the state provides welfare, the poor are not free.
The Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829, the Reform Act of 1832, and the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 were some instances of classical liberalism turned into law. The policies were based upon low public expenditure and low taxation. Classical liberalism was the dominant political theory from the early 19th century until the first World War.
Both are forms of liberalism and extoll a republican government answerable to its citizens as well as some implementation of capitalism, but differ in the extent to which they support pure laissez-faire capitalism. Social liberalism is what many in the USA refer to as simply "liberalism": it supports government intervention in the economy for purposes of providing social services such as education, medical care, and assistance with food or shelter for the poor. Neo-classical liberalism (aka libertarianism, neoliberalism), on the other hand, is an extreme laissez-faire ideology that rejects government interference in the economy, and relies upon private businesses and the free market to provide any desired social services. Often, neoliberals and conservatives share this economic perspective, but differ in their social policies; neoliberals tend to disapprove of the conservative support of gay marriage bans, drug prohibition, and, often, the imposition of Christian religious values. One could also fairly accurately distinguish these two philosophies by their economic theories: social liberalism values Keynesian economics, neo-classical liberalism values Austrian economics.
No. In fact, "classical liberalism" is almost the exact opposite of the "liberal" positions of the modern day. The reason is simple; "liberal" is good. Everybody wants their views to be considered "liberal", and so the very WORD "liberal" becomes distorted. At its root, "liberal" refers to someone who supports liberty and freedom for each individual. Modern "liberals" are more concerned with controlling the behaviors of individuals so that everyone behaves the same way.
Classical Liberalism aims to increase the power of the individual while decreasing the power of the government. It advocated civil liberties, reduced government intervention and laissez-faire economics. The movement branched out into many directions including right wing Social Darwinism and left wing Social Liberalism.
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