Where do chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their genetic informationi?
Chloroplasts and mitochondria are similar in that they both maintain some autonomy from the cell. They both contain their own genetic material separate from the nucleus of the cell. This has lead to the endosymbiotic theory - which states that chloroplasts and mitochondria were once unicellular organisms engulfed by and then incorporated into another cell.
The organelles that contain genetic material are: -chloroplasts They were once individual organisms themselves but had been engulfed by a eukaryote or a prokaryote, a process known as endosymbiosis -mitochondria like the chloroplasts, mitochondria were thought to be individual organisms, purple bacteria, later engulfed by a eukaryote or prokaryote in the same process (endosymbiosis)
What evidence exists to support the theory that mitochondria and chloroplast originated as prokaryotic cells?
This theory is called the endosymbiotic theory. Mitochondria and chloroplasts both have their own ribosomes and their own genetic material, and they are also membrane-bound organelles. This is evidence that a long time ago, a prokaryotic cell incorporated another prokaryotic cell within itself, in its cytoplasm. This eventually came to create the first chloroplasts and mitochondria.
Sperm are male gametes. They contain half the genetic material needed for a new organism. They have lots of mitochondria to give them energy. Human sperm combine the genetic material with the female gamete, the ovum but the do not give any mitochondria to the ovum. Only the mother's mitochondria are passed on to the next generation.
What evidence is there to support the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as prokaryotic cells?
The endosymbiotic hypothesis postulates that an early eukaryotic cells lacking mitochondria and chloroplasts phagocytosed early aerobic prokaryotes and photosynthetic prokaryotes and rather than digesting them, formed a symbiotic relationship with them, offering them nutrients and shelter (therefore the 'endo-' part) and getting very efficient energy generating systems in return. This hypothesis was proposed after mitochondria and chloroplasts were found to share many structure and mechanistic similarities with aerobic and photosynthetic prokaryotes, and that mitochondria and…
Three exceptions to the cell theory are viruses, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and where did the first cell come from. Viruses carry on life processes but need to replication inside a host cell. The mitochondria and chloroplast have their own genetic material and can reproduce independently within a cell.
How does endosymbiosis play a role in the evolution of prokaryotes to eukaryotes and how mitochondria important to this evolution?
The difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is primarily that prokaryotes don't have membrane-wrapped organelles, including a cell nucleus containing its genetic material and mitochondria, the organelles that produce most of the eukaryote's supply of ATP, a source of chemical energy for cells. It is thought that organelles like the mitochondria evolved in eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis between prokaryotes. A similar origin has been proposed for chloroplasts in algae and plants. This is supported…
The chromosome(s) made of DNA: in prokaryotes (e.g. bacteria) there is one large circular chromosome and several smaller circular plasmids that float free in the cytoplasm that contain the necessary genetic information in eukaryotes there are several linear chromosomes contained in the nucleus (as well as circular chromosomes in other organelles, e.g. mitochondria) that contain the necessary genetic information.
There is no such thing as a "male egg". All eggs are produced by the female and include the genetic information from the female necessary to create a new life. In oviparous species, the egg also contains nutrients for the growing infant and some form of protection for it. Eggs also contain mitochondria, and the mitochondria of the offspring come from these maternal mitochondria. Whether the child is male or female, all human mitochondria originate…
plant cells have cell walls made of cellulose where as prokaryotes have cell walls made of polysaccharides. Plant cells have nuclei containing the genetic information (DNA) in chain form. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus and the DNA exists freely in the cytoplasm in circular forms called plasmids. prokaryotic cells dont contain mitochondria to produce ATP. Plant cells do contain mitochondria. plant cells have choloroplasts containing chlorophyl. Prokaryotic cells dont have chloroplasts. prokaryotic cells often also…