Which period of the renaissance occured during the reign of Charles 1?
There are a number of periods of time referred to as "renaissances". If you are referring to the European renaissance of the 16th century, the baroque period followed it. The Harlem Renaissance occured during the 1920's in New York City. The time period following this Renaissance would be the 1930's which was marked by the Great Depression and World War II.
Religion was very important during the Renaissance. This period is called the Renaissance because "renaissance" means "rebirth." The Renaissance was a time in Europe of renewed interest in music, art, religion, learning, and literature. You can see what a central focus Christianity was just by looking at the Renaissance art.