Who and what are major factors surrounding the life of the prophet Jeremiah?
Jeremiah, sometimes called the weeping prophet, was surrounded by a nation ripe for judgment. The apostate nation of Israel had refused repeatedly to heed the warnings of this man of God, like others before him. He foresaw the results of their sin and continuing rebellion against their God. Jeremiah himself was falsely accused of treason and thrown into a muddy dungeon. He also had a scroll of prophecy burnt by the king.
I believe you mean a major prophet. Whether a prophet is "major" or "minor" has to deal with the amount of writing they produced. Major prophets (like Isaiah or Jeremiah) wrote a lot, whereas minor prophets (like Baruch and others) wrote very little. It has nothing to do with how much work or how much good the prophet did.
Major Prophets have more chapters in the books of inspired, canonical sacred Scripture that bear their respective names. Each Minor Prophet has fewer chapters in his book that any Major Prophet has. Isaiah, for example, was a Major Prophet, whereas Micah was a Minor Prophet. The Major Prophets were Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel; the other twelve were Minor Prophets. (Daniel, Baruch, and Lamentations fit in neither category.)
A: The Books of Jeremiah and Lamentations are both traditionally ascribed to Jeremiah, but the actual authorship of Lamentations can not be established. Similar style and language are common to several of the prophet's contemporaries, and the viewpoint expressed in Lamentations is most unlike his pronouncements in Jeremiah.