Islam has lots of Prophets if that is what you mean by historical figures and there are also lots of events. Allah does not specialize any of his messengers/Prophets but the last Prophet named Muhammed(peace be upon him) was known alot. Each Prophet has a special ability. For example, Dawud(PBUH) had an excellent voice. An event of Islam is Eid and this is celebrated after Ramadan. Ramadan is when us Muslims don't eat till sunset. We do this so we can feel the starvation of the poor and needy. Hajj is also just another wonderful event of Islam. Hajj actually includes a series of activities. First you do Ihram and Neea. Ihram is the certain clothes you wear and the procedure that you do to clean yourself. Comb your hair, shape the beard, trim your mustache, cut your nails.Take a bath with the intention of Ihram otherwise do wudu. Both should wear the flip-flops so that the middle bones of the upper part of the feet are not covered.If it is not makruh (undesirable) time, offer two rakahs of nafl for Ihram by covering your heads.Now uncover your head and declare your intention. It is assumed that you are performing Hajj al-Tammat'u in which Umrah is performed first as described later in the "Kinds of Hajj".Immediately after that utter the words of Talbiyah three times and as often afterwards as possible. If you don't remember it, you can say its translation in English or in any other language but Talbiah or its translation is pronounced in a loud voice by men and in a subdued voice by women.After this recite Darud Sharif and supplicate to Allah Almighty any du'a in Arabic or in your own language.After intention and Talbiyah, you are in the status of Ihram and from this time on you should not do acts that are forbidden in Ihram , for example, here are some of the things a muhrim must not do:
- Cover head (men), cover face (women)
- Cover the middle bone of the upper part of the feet (Both men and women))
- Shave / cut hair
- Cut nails
- Wear perfume
- Wear stitched clothing (men) / (Women can wear their ordinay clothes)
- Hunting / killing
For male they wear two pieces of white cloth covering part of the breast and the lower body. For a female I hram is just the regular everyday clothes that they wear to Hajj. The next part is to Make Tawaf (circumvolution) around Kaaba, seven times while glorifying God
*Walk between Safa and Marwa seven times with occasional trotting, (Sa'i)
This completes the "Umrah" portion of the pilgrimage. The state of Ihram can be either broken or maintained at this point and before proceeding to Mountain Arafat. If the state of ihram is broken, a pilgrim must offer a sacrifice or fast a total of ten days, three of them must be during the pilgrimage (2:196).
(3) GOING TO ARAFAT
*Proceed to Arafat. (Going through or halting at Mena not a mandatory step)
*Stay in Arafat from Fajr till sunset
*Stay in any part of Arafat
*Glorify God, repeat supplication, repent and ask for forgiveness
(4) GOING TO MUZDALIFAH
*Leave for Muzdalifah after sunset
*Observe Night prayers as usual
*Pick up 21 pebbles
*Stay overnight and perform Fajr prayer
(5) PROCEED TO MINA
*Leave Muzdalifah for Mena in the morning
*Spend at least two days there
*On the first morning in Mina, offer an animal sacrifice
*Go to the three Jamarat stations and stone each with 7 pebbles while glorifying God
(6) FAREWELL TAWAF
*Return to Mecca and observe a farewell circumvolution (Tawaf) seven times around Kaaba
*Cut or shorten hair
*All Ihram restrictions are now lifted and Hajj is completed
There are many historical figures in Islam, they advanced in many fields including mathematics, science, religion, and many many more which helped the world come out of the dark ages into the modern era.
You can refer to the related links for more information.
muhammed, moses, Jesus, and Abraham... yes all of the 25 prophets from adam a.s. down to muhammad pbuh are historical figures of islam each of them have contributed to the propagation and establishment of islam and that is why every muslim individual should render love and respect to all these prophets, also the sahabatul kiram of prophet muhammad p.b.u.h., the tabiin, the tabit tabiin, the four madzhab and the ulamas who served islam, some of the historical events of islam are; the first revelation received by the holy prophet at cave of hira, israh wal mi'radz, hijrah, the migration of his sahabat to ethiopia, the battles that was fought by Rasulullah and his sahabat, the signing of the treaty of hudaibiya, the entry of the holy prophet and the muslim to makka and there are many, many more.
Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) Prophet Moses (pbuh) Prophet Noah (pbuh) Prophet Jesus (pbuh) Imam Ali
Mohammad, NOAH, Abraham, Moses, Jesus
Well there's a lot of historical events and figures in Islam. From the top of my head I can say:
Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h. and his journeys to Mecca and Madina. Also his journeys to spread the religion of Islam. Omar bin Al Khatab, Ibn Magid...
Anyone, feel free to add more...I'm not so good with spelling in English the names.