Who at Gibson the guitar company was responsible for making the guitars and why?

Orville Gibson for mandolins (sort of like a guitar) in the 1890s as well as archtopped guitars as well as the ES (Electrc spanish) guitar

Les Paul Ted McCarty and Les Paul made the Les Paul shape we all know and love , he also invented

Ted McCarty went on to make the Flying V and Explorer shape, the explorer was ahead of its time but was brought back years later and had much greater success thanks to metal guitarists such as James Hetfield the flying V in the 60s thanks to guitarists such as Jimi Hendrix and finally the Firebird guitar shape which guitarists such as Nikki Sixx play. As well as the tune-o-matic bridge and SG (solid guitar) shape. Ted's doen more but those are the highlights

Seth Lover is credited for humbucker pickups that where first used on Gibsons and than it goes down from there. more can be found on wikipedia of course