Who created the civil rights movements?
To consider the 'Civil Rights Movement' as something which was created by a particular person is wrong. It is more so the case that a group of people (African Americans) felt the need to collectively stand up for their rights and it was certain people (Martin Luther King Jr.and Rosa Parks for example) who took on the role to be the 'voice of the people,' so to speak.
Martin Luther King Jr. took on a major role in the 'Civil Rights Movement'. He encouraged non-violent protesting and convinced the people to push for equal rights peacefully instead of rioting and acting violently. It was based on the idea that violence would only bring the people down to the level of the people whom oppressed them.