Who invented algebra?
Algebra was invented by the Muslim mathematician Al-Khwarizmi in the book he wrote in 820. Algebra is the Arabic word (aljabr) for "equation", and the word "algorithm" comes from the author's name, Al-Khwarizmi. He is rightly known as "the father of Algebra".
J. J. O'Conner and E. F. Robertson wrote in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive: "Perhaps one of the most significant advances made by Arabic mathematics began at this time with the work of al-Khwarizmi, namely the beginnings of algebra. It is important to understand just how significant this new idea was. It was a revolutionary move away from the Greek concept of mathematics which was essentially geometry. Algebra was a unifying theory which allowed rational numbers, irrational numbers geometrical magnitudes, etc., to all be treated as "algebraic objects". It gave mathematics a whole new development path so much broader in concept to that which had existed before, and provided a vehicle for future development of the subject. Another important aspect of the introduction of algebraic ideas was that it allowed mathematics to be applied to itself in a way which had not happened before.
Isaac Newton was one of the two inventors of what we now call calculus. (And he did start to dabble in alchemy at the end, but saying he spent the rest of his life working on it after inventing calculus might be a stretch. ;-) )
Al-Khwarizmi is often considered the greatest mathematician of all time.
Arabic scholar Al-Khwarizmi (c. 780 - c. 850) visited
India and collected mathematical material for his book
"Ilm al-jabr wa'd muqabalah". He sold his book to the
Romans. The source of the English word algebra was
aljabr which in Arabic means 'the equating'. His name
became the word 'algorism', the old word for
arithmetic. The same word was the root for 'Algorithm'
used in computing. Through his writings, the decimal
system and the use of zero were transmitted to the
west. Algebra was known to Indians long before
Brahmagupta (ca. 598-ca. 665).
Al-Khwarizmi's algebra is regarded as the foundation and cornerstone of the sciences. In a sense, al-Khwarizmi is more entitled to be called "the father of algebra" than Diophantus because al-Khwarizmi is the first to teach algebra in an elementary form and for its own sake, while Diophantus is primarily concerned with the theory of numbers.