One POSSIBLE maker (you did not give us a lot of info to work from) was Anciens Establishments, Peiper of Herstal, Belgium. If you gun has a small marking of the letters ELG in an oval, that is the prrofmark for Liege, Belgium.
20-80 USD or so
The barrel will say where it was manufactured
You will have to take it to a gunsmith for a chamber cast
Hasn't happened yet.
I assume your single action is pre-war ? If so, then made about 1907. As to the caliber, check markings on barrel. that should give the caliber.......
You will need a gunsmith to assist with measuring.
The caliber of a firearm refers to the bore diameter of the barrel,and what caliber is marked near the chamber of the gun,or on the barrel.
You need to provide caliber and any barrel markings (i.e. Savage Arms etc.).
Gun smith, gun shows.
Well, it depends on what you mean. The caliber is "determined" at time of production based on whatever caliber the manufacturer wants it to be. The caliber can be determined later by looking on the barrel. The caliber will almost always be stamped somewhere on the barrel.