Who originated the phrase 'The whole is greater than the sum of its parts'?
1. The whole is more than the sum of its parts. Aristotle, Metaphysica
2. Max Wertheimer Gestalt theory (1920s)
3. SYNERGETICS: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking by R. Buckminster Fuller in collaboration with E. J. Applewhite; First Published by Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. 1975, 1979
would appreciate knowing of any other attributions!
Additional attribution -- Kurt Koffka: "It has been said: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. It is more correct to say that the whole is something else than the sum of its parts, because summing up is a meaningless procedure, whereas the whole-part relationship is meaningful." (Kurt Koffka, 1935: New York: Harcourt-Brace. p 176) [emphasis added]
On that view, "more than" does not mean that the whole is "greater" than the sum of its parts but that it is more than merely the sum of its parts.
The remarks of an unidentified poster on a different forum make this point: "One frequently finds Gestalt theory characterized by the notion that a Gestalt or whole is more than the sum of its parts. But in fact Gestalt theory did not make such a claim. Rather, Gestalt theory maintains, there are experienced objects and relationships that are fundamentally different from mere collections of sensations, parts, or pieces, or 'and-sums', as Max Wertheimer called them. So what Gestalt theory actually says about this relationship is that a Gestalt is a whole which is different from the sum of its parts."
In fact there is no place in Aristotle's Metaphysics where the phrase
"the whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
or anything similar can be found!
In Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, the following quote is attributed to Edward Bulwer Lytton (1805-1873) in: Caxtonia - Differences Between the Urban and Rural Temperment
"If the whole be greater than a part, a whole man must be greater than that part of him which is found in a book."
A group of German psychologists wanted to know how the mind organized sensations into perceptions. The individual organizes a cluster of sensations into a gestalt or "whole". They were fond of saying that in perception, "the whole may exceed the sum of its parts." (sodium = corrosive metal, chlorine = poisonous gas; sodium + chlorine = table salt). Aristotle did not originate that phase. It is not found in any of his writings in Greek…
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In decimal numbers the whole number is always written on the left side of the decimal point. Parts or fractions are written on the right of the decimal point. 3.7 has 3 whole numbers 0.370 has got no whole numbers it only has parts of a whole number (37/100) So what do you think, which one is greater
Often times the saying "the whole is greater than the sum of it's parts" is used to describe when it is believed that something has more value if it's separated into it's parts and sold separately than the whole thing. For example, sometimes large companies are believed to be worth more if they sold each division of the company separately rather than selling the whole company.
It's from Gestalt psychology which is based on the premise that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. To my knowledge it comes from the new science of systems, General Systems Theory and infers that one cannot know the whole through the traditional science of reductionism, taking it apart, studying the parts and putting them back together again, thinking then you know the whole. The reason for this is one can only…
An organization as a whole is made up of various parts. In order for the mission to be accomplished, all parts must work in harmony, in sync, with common purpose common cause. While all parts of the whole are critical, it is still the organization as a whole that accomplishes its goals and objectives. In other words, it's the concept that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
What psychological school first identified that visual perception occurs in terms of whole objects rather than individual component parts?
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A). 1.561 . . . . No. 1 is less than 6, so the decimal doesn't matter at all. B). 6.421 . . . . No. The whole parts are equal, but the decimal part 0.421 is less than 0.44 . C). 0.491 . . . . No. The whole part ' 0 ' is less than 6, so the decimal doesn't matter at all. D). 6.461 . . . . Yes. The whole parts…