1. England had experienced all of the forerunners of industrialization in the previous century: an agricultural revolution, cottage industry, and an expanded commercial revolution. These developments had built surplus capital and an infrastructure
(shipping, banking, insurance, joint stock companies).
2. England already had a handcraft textile industry using wool, but with the availability of cotton from overseas markets as an alternative raw material.
3. The scientific revolution in England prepared the way for new inventions to be applied to industry.
4. A spreading shortage of wood (used for energy, for shipbuilding and
construction) stimulated a search for alternatives.
5. England was rich in supplies of coal for energy and iron for construction.
6. England had a long, irregular coastline with many rivers and natural
harbors which provided easy transportation by water to many areas.
7. England's population grew rapidly in the 18th century, providing a labor
force for industry.