The Jewish Sanhedrin was able to try Jesus for blasphemy under Mosaic law (Luke 22:71) and succeeded, but could not pass the penalty of execution because they did not have the authority to do so. (John 18:32)
Jesus was then taken before the prefect of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, who although noting that he found Jesus innocent of any charges (Luke 23:4,16)- at least under Roman law; religious law was handled by the relevant religious authority, in this case the Sanhedrin, with any major punishment subject to Roman control - but signed the warrant for fear of causing riots as the crowd had been worked to fever pitch by the Sanhedrin. (Luke 23:24)
He was then crucified by Roman soldiers, in a decidedly Roman way. Had Jesus been executed by the Sanhedrin, He would have been stoned to death.
The chief priests saw him as a threat to their "power". But the Truth is that it was the Father's will that he die for our sins and Jesus loved the Father and the Father was in him and so it was done. By doing so God defeated the devil for us and showed that there is victory over death to this world.
It was by divine plan. God's plan is as always perfect - the Jew's are the only people that would not have to answer for the killing of Jesus. They are his "chosen people" Thereby the perfect atonement for the rest of the world's transgressions.
It was Romans who actually killed Jesus.
Though, certain Jews may have wished he were dead, Jews did not do the actual killing.Jesus had a criminal trial before being put to death.He was charged with the following crimes...
"And they began to accuse him, saying, "We have found this man subverting our nation. He opposes payment of taxes to Caesar and claims to be Christ, a king."
- Luke 23:2
As you see, there are two or three criminal charges made against Jesus.
Regarding the charge of claiming to be a king, Jesus himself said...
"My kingdom is not of this world." - John 18:36
But, regarding the charge of opposing paying taxes, there is considerable evidence this is the reason why Jesus was killed.
1. Jesus taught, "the subjects are exempt" ... from paying taxes to "kings on the earth."
- Matthew 17:26
2. Tax collectors, specifically, were very big fans of Jesus.
"Now all the tax collectors and sinners kept coming to listen to Jesus."
- Luke 15:1
3. But, Jesus also sought out the tax collectors himself. He described himself as a friend of tax collectors.
'a friend of tax collectors and sinners!'
- Matthew 11:19
4. Jesus said tax collectors are sick and wanted to heal them.
"Why do you eat and drink with the tax collectors and sinners?" And Jesus answered and said to them, "It is not those who are well who need a physician, but those who are sick."
- Luke 5:30-31
5. Jesus interfered with the tax collector's at work, at least twice.
A chief tax collector, who Jesus was teaching, actually returned some of the taxes he had taken from other people. This would be something Romans, and a few other tax collectors, could not appreciate.
"Zacchaeus stood up and said to the Lord, "Look, Lord! Here and now I give half of my possessions to the poor, and if I have cheated anybody out of anything, I will pay back four times the amount."
- Luke 19:8
Jesus persuaded another tax collector to abandon his duties to follow him. Again, this was not appreciated by Romans.
"As Jesus went on from there, He saw a man called Matthew, sitting in the tax collector's booth; and He said to him, "Follow Me!" And he got up and followed Him."
- Matthew 9:9
6. Jesus was so well-known for being followed by tax collectors, and speaking to, and teaching tax collectors that his persecutors used the very subject of taxation in an attempt to entrap him into giving out "illegal" tax advice.
"The Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk. They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren't partial to anyone. Tell us therefore, what do you think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?"
Many believe that because Jesus answered, "give to Caesar what is Caesars", he meant we should pay taxes to Caesar. Unfortunately, every Bible version completely fails to mention something which those present already knew, that Caesar's coin had an inscription saying Caesar is divine, a god. So, Jews could not carry or use this coin without breaking the first commandment (and in some bibles the second commandment), to have no other gods, no graven images, and no bowing down to them, nor serving them. (Ex. 20:3, Deu. 5:7)
Jesus escaped entrapment, temporarily, by stating the obvious...
"Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's." - Matthew 22:21 (WEB)
The obvious part was that God made everything, and so everything belongs to God.
7. Jesus threw the moneychangers, i.e. bankers, out of the temple. This would mean, if there is no money being "changed", there are no taxes being paid. (Mark 11:15, John 2:15, Matthew 21:12)
You'll find that Jesus was dead within just three days after throwing the moneychangers out of the temple.
8. According to Caesar, Caesar is god. But, this is not what Jesus was teaching to tax collectors and other "sinners".
"No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other, or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon."
- Luke 16:13 (Mammon is the god of riches)
Jesus said, "it is written"...
"You shall worship the Lord your God, and you shall serve him only."
- Matthew 4:10
Hearing all this did not make the Romans very happy, so followers of Jesus, i.e. tax collectors, sinners, ... Christians ... were persecuted.
A final note:
Many people quote Romans 13 as the reason to pay taxes, but...
a. Paul wrote Romans 13.
b. Paul was a Roman.
c. Paul did not quote Jesus.
d. Paul never knew Jesus.
e. Paul did persecute followers of Jesus.
Jesus, however, specifically said, "the subjects are exempt."
And so, when the Roman Governor Pilate ultimately (obviously) found out, perhaps from other tax collectors, that Jesus was indeed leading a successful tax revolt, he was scourged and killed ... by Romans.
Actually they did not. Although a certain group of Jewish people at that time were instrumental to carry out the circumstances, this was a group of what today we would call ultra-liberal aristocrats. They were the Saduccees and the appointed leaders that engineered this were the vassal priests Ciaphas and his father in law Annas who were appointed by Roma and not the legitimate High Priests at all. Why would they believe the many prophecies, they do not believe the word of God (John 17:17). It was either the truth or not and they thought not...but what did Jesus think (John 17:17)
There are a few things we should note. It was the Father's purpose to send forth His Son (the Servant, and Lamb of God) to be a sacrifice for the sins of the world. Next Christ (Messiah) of His own free will (His will and the Father's were one) gave Himself and tells us "no man takes my life I have the power to lay it down and I have the power to raise it up again. Then we have the Romans who actually did the deed and of course you and I who made it necessary for Him to have to come and die in our place.
The first 5,000 or so followers of Christ were all Jews and after the Resurrection we are told many (even Priests and Pharisees and Scribes) became disciples of Messiah Y'shua (Jesus). Also note the 1st Bishop was not Peter (a Jew) but James (also Jewish) in the real "mother church" which was located in Jerusalem (of Judea/Palestine)
Want to get to heaven? Romans 3:23; Romans 6:23; John 3:3-8; Acts 2:38
To believe (verb form of the greek noun pistis translated faith and it means to be totally trusting in, relying on, and cleaving to someone or something...and this someone is God's Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ and in His work on the cross which is proven to be justified by the historical fact of His bodily resurrection from the dead.
This is a Christian blood libel and perhaps the most central one. Is it true that Jews disagreed with Jesus? Yes, and quite fervently. The Related Question (Why did the Jews oppose Jesus Christ even though he performed many miracles?) provides the reasons underlying the Jewish disagreements with Jesus and his activities and assertions. There is even a discussion in the Talmud on the issue of Jesus (although it is unclear if this is a later edit-job or part of the original text). The Rabbis come to conclusion that he is heretic and that he merits stoning.
However, the act of plotting to actually commit murder is far removed from these discussions and more serious. There are many debates in the Talmud concerning both historical individuals and alleged stories like the Oven of Achnai. This does not mean that those events actually happened, only that the thought experiment of "what would happen under these circumstances" was done. The New Testament makes a number of simple errors about Jewish jurisprudence on such matters. For example, it claims that the Sanhedrin convened on Passover to condemn Jesus. However, the leaders of the Sanhedrin followed the letter of the law to a fault (Jesus even reprimands them for it) and one of the laws is that the Sanhedrin can never meet on a holiday, especially one as central as Passover. Secondly, they allude to a connection between the High Priests and the Sanhedrin in agreeing on what actions to take on Jesus. There was an intense political fight between the High Priests and the Rabbis of the Sanhedrin as to the future direction of Judaism. The High Priests were more corrupt and elitist. The Rabbis were more earnest and populist. There is no reason that the High Priests would not wish to keep Jesus preaching if his populist approach would weaken the appeal of the Rabbis.
As for exacting the death penalty, even if the events leading up Jesus' execution were as the New Testament records them, no Jew would sanction an execution by crucifixion. There are only four acceptable implementations of capital punishment in Judaism that are strongly regulated: decapitation, quick strangulation, quick strangulation with internal burning, and stoning. There is complete rejection of any form of capital punishment that uses piercings to kill or leaves the criminal to suffer for hours on end. Crucifixion is in both categories and was a uniquely Roman punishment.
The claim that the Romans plotted against Jesus and had him crucified is much stronger. The Messiah of that period was understood the way that Jews still understand this concept: an Earthly King who would establish a Jewish Kingdom. Necessarily, therefore, Jesus was going to have to raise an army or commit some political intrigue to achieve this goal. The Romans were likely afraid that Jesus would try to lead a rebellion to free Judea from Roman occupation. This fear would prove justified when another Messianic Candidate, Bar Kochba, would actually lead a revolt against the Romans that ended disastrously for the Jews. In order to prevent Jesus from taking that power, the Romans pre-emptively sought him out and questioned if he was the King of Jews, i.e. someone actively trying to create a Jewish Kingdom in defiance of Rome. When they received answers that troubled them, they chose to execute him in the traditional Roman manner of execution. Pontius Pilate is mentioned in several sources outside of The Bible. In each, he is considered a cruel and vicious man who delighted in executions. Why would he spare the rod here when there was such an obvious threat?
As Rome was the dominant world power during the period of the early Church and Judaism was seen as the "adversary" of early Christianity for rejecting Jesus' Messianic Nature, the Church transferred what should have been hatred for the Roman Leadership into hatred of the Jews and worked assiduously to create a narrative that would paint the Romans as weak and powerless to stop Jewish tyranny when it was Jews as a population who were unable to stop Roman tyranny.