Why is most productivity in open ocean limited to surface waters?
Areas of the open ocean are often very deep. Primary productivity relies on sunlight, and sunlight only penetrates the first 10m or so (varies widely) of the ocean surface. Therefore, only this surface zone is photosynetically productive, which in turn fuels secondary (small crustaceans, zooplankton, etc.) and tertiary (fish) production.
Global warming has many effects, on ice and oceans some are: Melting glaciers More icebergs calf off glaciers into ocean making shipping more risky Ocean surface waters warm Warm ocean surface waters hasten melting of icebergs Warm ocean surface waters cause stronger hurricanes and typhoons Warm ocean surface waters increase precipitation causing floods Melting glaciers and icebergs raise sea level, causing loss of islands and coastal areas etc.
How do differences indensity cause currents to flow both in the surface waters of the ocean and in the bottom waters of the ocean?
Algae in the oceans can absorb a considerable amount of carbon dioxide. The water itself also dissolves carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, however this is limited to the surface level waters, since there is little interchange between the warm surface water and the deep ocean waters. Scientists believe that the ocean will continue to dissolve some of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but not enough to stop levels rising. If we reduce the…
How do differences in density cause currents to flow both in the surface waters of the ocean and in the bottom waters of the ocean?
Are the three major kinds of marine habitats shallow ocean waters open sea surface and deep sea waters?
This is very much a matter of the detail you wish to go into. Marine habitats can be divided into coastal and open ocean habitats. You might distinguish between warmer and colder surface waters, or the different levels of the deep sea such as benthic, demersal and pelagic. There are vast differences as habitats between a kelp bed and a coral reef.
Tropical waters are nutrient poor at the surface. When living things die at the surface they sink to the bottom where they decompose. The nutrients that are released when they decompose stay at the bottom because there's a thermocline--the deep water is cold and the surface water is warm and they don't mix. So the surface waters don't have much algae and stay clearer.
Surface ocean currents are mainly wind-driven and occur in all of the world's oceans. Examples of large surface currents that move across vast expanses of ocean are the Gulf Stream, the North Atlantic Current, the California Current, the Atlantic South Equatorial Current, and the Westwind Drift. Associated with surface currents are counter-surface and underlying currents. Surface ocean currents are deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere…
Thermocline is defined by having increased temperatures in the surface water but cold water temperatures in the deep sea due to sunlight being unable to penetrate ocean waters the deeply. Sunlight and increased temperatures in water is associated with low nutrients therefore anything with a strong thermocline is pertained to low nutrients but high sunlight.