Why was the civil rights movement put into place?

Human rights are "basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled".[1]. The doctrine of human rights aims to identify the necessary positive and negative prerequisites for a "universal" minimal standard of justice, tolerance and human dignity that can be considered the public moral norms owed by and to individuals by the mere virtue of their humanity. Such prerequisites can exist as shared norms of actual human moralities, as justified moral norms or moral rights supported by strong reasons, as legal rights at a national level, or as a legal right within international law.[2] Human rights advocates seek the strong protection of human rights through their effective realisation in each of these ways. The claim of Human rights is therefore that they are universal, in that they are possessed by all by virtue of the fact that they are human, and independent in that their existence as moral standards of justification and criticism is independent whether or not they are recognized and by a particular national or international legal system. or government.[3].
The general idea of Human rights has widespread acceptance, and it has been argued that the doctrine of human rights has become the dominant moral doctrine for regulating and evaluating the moral status of the contemporary geo-political order.[4] Indeed, the Charter of the United Nations which has been signed by virtually all sovereign states recognises the existence of human rights and calls for their promotion and respect. However, debate and disagreement over which rights are human rights, and about the precise nature, content, justification and appropriate legal status of those rights continues. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has acted as the predominant modern codification of commonly accepted human rights principles and many national many international documents, treaties and instruments that have expanded on its principles and act as a collective expression of widespread conceptions of human rights by the international community. Examples of rights and freedoms which have come to be commonly thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and liberty, freedom of expression, and equality before the law; and economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to participate in culture, the right to be treated with respect and dignity, the right to food, the right to work, and the right to education.
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
-Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)[5]


  • 1 History
  • 2 International Law
    • 2.1 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
    • 2.2 Treaties
    • 2.3 Humanitarian Law
    • 2.4 Enforcement of law
    • 2.5 Universal Jurisdiction
  • 3 International Organisations
    • 3.1 United Nations
      • 3.1.1 Human Rights Council
      • 3.1.2 Security Council
      • 3.1.3 Other UN Treaty Bodies
    • 3.2 Nongovernmental Organisations
  • 4 Regional human rights
    • 4.1 Africa
    • 4.2 Americas
    • 4.3 Asia
    • 4.4 Europe
    • 4.5 Oceania
  • 5 Philosophies
    • 5.1 Natural rights
    • 5.2 Social contract
    • 5.3 Reciprocity
    • 5.4 Other theories of human rights
    • 5.5 Critiques of human rights
  • 6 Concepts in human rights
    • 6.1 Indivisibility and categorization
      • 6.1.1 Indivisibility
      • 6.1.2 Categorization
    • 6.2 Universalism vs. cultural relativism
    • 6.3 State and non-state actors
    • 6.4 Theory of value and property
  • 7 Legal issues
    • 7.1 Human rights vs. national security
    • 7.2 Human rights violations
  • 8 Currently debated rights
    • 8.1 Environmental rights
    • 8.2 Future generations
    • 8.3 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) rights
    • 8.4 Trade
    • 8.5 Water
    • 8.6 Crime and Punishment
    • 8.7 Fetal rights
    • 8.8 Reproductive rights
    • 8.9 Medicine
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 Bibliography
  • 12 External links


Main article: History of human rights
The Magna Carta was issued in England in 1215.

Although ideas of rights and liberty existed for all of human society, it is unclear how much such liberties can be described as "human rights" in the modern sense. Some historians argue[citation needed] that in non-Western cultures - and indeed in the West before the late Middle Ages - there was no concept of human rights, although important ethical concepts were nonetheless present. The concept of rights certainly existed in pre-modern cultures; ancient philosophers such as Aristotle wrote extensively on the rights (to dikaion in ancient Greek, roughly a "just claim") of citizens to property and participation in public affairs. However, neither the Greeks nor the Romans had