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Native American History

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Maynard Windler

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โˆ™ 2021-11-06 18:34:29
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Cards in this guide (28)
What was the Trail of Tears

In 1830 President Andrew Jackson signed into law "The Indian Removal Act" which allowed or authorized the removal of the "Five Civilized Tribes" (Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee (Creek), Chickasaw and Seminole) to "Indian Territory" (modern day Oklahoma).
In 1831 combined army, militia, and volunteer forces began to move these tribes along one of several routes to two forts located in Indian Territory: Fort Gibson and Fort Townson. The last tribe moved were the Cherokee in 1838. It should be noted that some tribes accepted bribes of money and or lands, while others did not and were forced under the threat of death - some of these rebelled resulting in armed conflict. During the move there were several way stations along the route, but not all had proper provisioning. For various reasons (from bad planning or indifference to intentional lack of concern, to malfeasant action), many Indians were not allowed or given access to proper food, medical supplies, warm clothing, nor allowed to rest for any significant period of time, which resulted in the deaths of many tribal members. These deaths were exacerbated by the untended dead left along the trail.
The native Americans began to call this trail or series of trails, the "Trail where they Wept / Cried" and it has been changed a little to "The Trail of Tears" by modern translation. The Arkansas Gazette quoted Thomas Harkins (a Choctaw) as saying "[it was] a trail of tears and death"
There were approximately 11 of these trails, taken by different tribes based upon location. They ranged in distance from 200 to 900 miles and went through 14 states (These distances do not include oversea travel):

  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Kentucky
  • Tennessee
  • Georgia
  • Alabama
  • Louisiana
  • Florida
  • Texas
  • Oklahoma
  • Arkansas
  • Missouri
  • Mississippi
  • Illinois

NUMBER OF DEATHS
The number of dead are only estimates, as there was no accurate count taken:
  • Choctaw: 2,500 to 6,000
  • Muscogee (Creek): No estimate
  • Chickasaw: No Estimate - paid $530,000 dollars
  • Cherokee: 4,000 to 15,000
SEMINOLE WAR
The Seminole resisted movement and started a 'minor' war with the US. The first detachment of 110 US soldiers sent to move the Seminole were attacked and 107 were killed. The government marshaled 500 soldiers against the Seminole and the war lasted for 10 years, costing the US Government 20 million dollars. The US eventually gave up hunting through the swamps of Florida for stragglers. There are no other estimates of dead, on either side.

INCLUSION OF SLAVES (Negro slaves):
African American Slaves either as freedmen, as members of the tribes by marriage, or as slaves of the Indians, were forced to move with the Indians at this same time. The inclusion of these families led to the current conflicts of "[the] Freedmen" of the Cherokee nation.

*Please note that this is not intended to be an all-inclusive answer, it is a basic answer to the questions on the subject and could be expanded into a very large book.
What is a push factor

reasons people would leave a place

What is a pull factor

a reason to go somewhere

How do you use pull factor in a sentence

The Pull factor pull factored the pull factor.

What was the main cause of prejudice against the immigrants

Competition for jobs

Why did plantation owners support racism

Plantation owners supported and propagated racism to justify owning people as slaves.

What was one result of the domestic slave trade

Slave families were split up.

Why did white people want the Cherokee to move out of Georgia

Gold was discovered there.

How did churches spread their message during the Second Great Awakening

all of the above (evangelism, revival meetings, through missionaries)

What was one cause of the Panic of 1819

One cause of the Panic of 1819 was that fewer exports going from America to Europe.

What was most likely the most difficult part of the Trail of Tears

the number of people who died on the trail.

Why did some Cherokee leaders accept the Treaty of New Echota

they feared more mistreatment

What was an effect of the peace in Europe after 1815

european nations needed fewer foreign goods.

Why did the cotton gin lead to the slaves becoming more valuable than without the cotton gin

more cotton plantations were needed <---APEX(:

What part of cotton production was done by hand

Planting

What is an example of the new city culture in the 1800s

private social clubs

What was a difficulty of cotton production

Cotton gins wore out the soil.

Which idea specifically favors native born Americans over recent immigrants

nativism

The second wave of immigration was mostly made up of immigrants from

irish and german.

What helped the cherokee survive on the trial of the tears

What helped the Cherokee's survive the trail of the tears was their hunt for food.

What did the completion of Erie Canal allow

The completion of the Erie Canal allowed for faster and cheaper travel to the Midwest.

A large number of Germans immigrated to the United States because

they were on the losing side of a revolution.

It was illegal to

Teach a slave to read or write.

The goal of urban planning was to create places that had both function and what

Beauty

The leadership role of women in social movements was likely an effect of

Limited opportunities available to women in other areas of public life. Answer this question…

The writings of Jacob stroyer are an important source of information because

They are a firsthand account by a slave

Planters moved from the Old South to the Deep South to do what

find new land

President Jackson attempted to do what to the second bank of the US

destroy

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