The scientific study of the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural development of humans.

4,421 Questions

What is healthy values?

What are considered healthy values generally depends on the culture you are a part of and even within that culture these values may be vastly different. Take for example the difference between what is important in the mind of a person that is a Muslim and that in the case of a Christian person. and even then what are considered healthy values may differ greatly among the people of different denominations and ways of thinking. Healthy values are an attitude to the things that are important in what you do in your life that serve to make the lives of others better for them selves and for you.

Health is a matter of three different fields: mental health, physical health and social health. When either of those three is damaged, the others will deteriorate with it. So if you live in a culture where your personal values are shunned or discriminated against, your health will suffer - and not just your social health.

What is important in values, is that your values do not impair your ability to lead a healthy life; which really means your values should complement a healthy lifestyle, on all three grounds of health (mental, physical and social).


Why is studying early humans so hard?

it is so hard to study early humans for many reasons. One is that not everything is turned to fossil so there are gaps in how things looked like. Also there are no written records like later humans which is our main source for historical data

Society and Civilization
Soaps and Detergents

When was plant detergent first used?

It has been used for AGES! That's what they started out with.

Thank you!

Languages and Cultures

In what way does culture distinguishes the behavior of human beings from animals?

Culture in and of itself is not a behavior specific to humans. Many animals display varying levels of culture. Take for instance pods of Orca, also known as the killer whale. Researchers have observed pods in ranged environments all over the world practicing food specific hunting practices (i.e. blowing air bubbles under sting rays to tickle them off the sea floor, purposefully beaching themselves to grab sea lions from the shore, or attacking great white sharks by charging them down and striking from above at the last minute) these practices are taught to members of the pod and passed down generation to generation; this is culture, the expansion of individual knowledge and physical abilities through communication and education via other members of the species.

Human Culture is distinct from animal culture because of its level of complexity. We have developed a "high culture," music, art, literature, etc. These socio-cultural formations serve no practical purpose and have not been adopted by animal cultures which tend to forward information to younger generations on a need to know basis.


In what part of the world did the mutation for lactose tolerance first appear?

A recent evolutionarily adaptation to dairy consumption, and has occurred independently in both northern Europe and east Africa.


What is counter culture in sociology?

culture that strongly opposed and widly accepted in a society.


What is triangulation in cultural anthropology?

Triangulation in cultural anthropology is essentially the belief that the better the mix of information you have on a culture or society, from different backgrounds and biases, the more likely you are to find the most accurate information. For example, if you want to find the average age of your classmates, the best method would to use mean,median, and mode to find your answer not one of the the three. Triangulation applies to anthropology because if you want to learn about people in New Zealand, it may seem best to ask a native of the country what it's like. But, it is also important to hear the story of people from other countries who study New Zealand culture as well, because they can offer comparisons and will have differenent biases/ opinions.

Social Sciences
Human Origins

Did the neanderthals walk upright?



What is a significant problem in contemporary culture?


Hatred, or refusal to accept, or attempt to understand minorities or those considered different. Especially the lesbian, gay, bi, and trans-gender community.


Another significant problem for contemporary society is a tendency for people to depend on others to tell them what the political, economic, or social problems are and what they mean. It is a problem when people get their information from a single source or limited sources. The second half of this problem (although by no means recent) is a lack of awareness that politically motivated speech is deliberately designed to use emotional, provoking imagery combined with vague, firm statements that the listener interprets with their imagination instead of knowledge. This was the main technique of Hitler's speeches and is still successful today.

Hobbies & Collectibles

When did applique begin?

An applique is a smaller ornament or device applied to another surface. In the context of ceramics, for example, an appliqué is a separate piece of clay added to the primary work, generally for the purpose of decoration. The term is borrowed from French and, in this context, means "applied" or "thing that has been applied."

It did not begin in general, but it has been in use since the 18th century.

World War 2

Is sanctum cave real?


Philosophy and Philosophers
History of Science

Which philospher once said that man is a social animal?

Citing the following passage, Bartlett's Familiar Quotations attributes the phrase, "Man is a social animal," to Baruch Spinoza:

"Yet it rarely happens that men live in obedience to reason, for things are so ordered among them, that they are generally envious and troublesome one to another. Nevertheless they are scarcely able to lead a solitary life, so that the definition of man as a social animal has met with general assent ; in fact, men do derive from social life much more convenience than injury."

-Ethics, IV, proposition 35:note

The notion of man as a social animal may have originated with Aristotle:

"Hence it is evident that the state is a creation of nature and that man by nature is a political animal."

-Politics, I

The adjective that Aristotle used to describe man in Greek is 'politikos' which is where we get the English word political. For this reason, 'politikos' is often translated as political, however the actual Greek meaning was a little deeper. 'Politikos' came from the Greek word 'polis' meaning city-state. To be 'politikos' was to be a member of the 'polis' or a citizen. Being a citizen, while certainly implying participation in various political responsibilities, was more about being a part of society; contributing to the good of the whole. In this way, the meaning of 'politikos' more resembles the English word social than political.

Animal Behavior
Human Behavior

What makes us different to animals?

Nothing. Animals and humans share similar systems both physical and mental, react the same way to stress, social interaction, threats, drugs and diseases and require the same type of care and feeding. Those who feel there is a difference point to humans' communication, language and artistic skills or make reference to metaphysical attributes like the "soul"

Alphabet History
Prefixes Suffixes and Root Words

What word start with the prefix theo?

The prefix Theo- comes from the Greek Term Theos meaning god or gods. Here are some examples of words with this prefix.

  • Theology - study of God
  • Theocracy - A government which whose high officials are priests serving the god/God/gods
  • Theosophy - the study of the wisdom of God
  • Theodicy - vindication of divine goodness and providence in view of the existence of evil
  • Theocentric - having God as a central focus
College Applications and Entrance Requirements
Business Communication

Define the concept of culture Also describe the national cultural variables and individual cultural variables with examples?

they are what he country believes in most

Social Work

What is the relationship between social work and anthropology?

Anthropology studies human life and society, studying the relations among humans. This relates to social work because you would have to deal with many lives, knowing their histories and culture in order to understand and help them.

Information Science and Libraries

Advantages of snowball sampling?

its easy its easy

Literature and Language

What is the field of cultural studies?

It is a vague term that denotes, ahem, the study of cultural ideologies, traditions, standards and politics based on the media of that culture. Media could mean literature, film, music, or art.

Religion & Spirituality

What are the similarities of history and religion?

Both claim that certain things are true, and both are supposed to teach us how to live wisely.


What does cultural diffusion mean?

Cultural diffusion is the spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another.

Direct diffusion of culture occurs when two distinct cultures are very close together. Over time, direct contact between the two leads to an intermingling of the cultures. Historically this occurred through trade, intermarriage, and sometimes warfare because members of the various cultures interacted with each other for long periods. An example today would be the similar interest in soccer in some areas of the United States and Mexico.

Forced diffusion or expansion diffusion is the second method of cultural diffusion and takes place when one culture defeats another and forces its beliefs and customs onto the conquered people. An example here would be when the Spanish took over lands in the Americas and later forced the original inhabitants to convert to Roman Catholicism in the 16th and 17th Centuries.

Indirect diffusion type happens when cultural ideas are spread through a middleman or even another culture. An example here would be the popularity of Italian food throughout North America. Technology, mass media, and the internet are both playing a huge role in promoting this type of cultural diffusion around the world today.
it is the spreading of ideas or products
the sharing of ideas through trade, travel and conflict

Muscular System

Why is the muscle structure of African Americans different from other races?

Muscle Structure The muscles themselves of black people, white people, or any other human being are not fundamentally different. We are all the same species.

Black men tend to have more fast-twitch muscle fibers which is good for sprinting, basketball, boxing, etc.

White men tend to have more slow-twitch muscle mass, just look at powerlifting and strong man competitions. Nearly all the world's strongest men are white. Consider the traditional builds of historically white groups like the Vikings, Spartans, Celts etc. Many consider them the world's fiercest warriors.

There is also an issue of shading. The color black or any dark color for that matter further accentuates the muscle tone of the body. That is why when white men are tan they tend to look leaner and more muscular.


How difficult would it be for a person with a Ph D in anthropology to get a job as an anthropology or archaeology professor?

To use the old cliche, "it just depends."

Experience teaching/lecturing/tutoring during your post-grad helps, as does publishing regularly and attending conferences. But as with most cool jobs there are way more people qualified than there are jobs available.

Other than that it might help to kiss up to the other professors in the department. That seems to work quite well where I come from... :P

Environmental Issues

Do humans have instincts or is everything a result of our environment?

According to what scientists currently say, humans have no instincts.

For example, baby sea turtles know to move toward the water from the shore where their eggs have been laid by nature. This is an INSTINCT. Humans, however, have no such natural behavior. All supposed instincts which some people may tell you, are not actually instincts, but simply learned responses to stimulus.

Correct, most of those are reflexes; which are not the same as instincts.

Humans DO NOT have instinct! We have response and learned response. Instinct does not exist in our DNA. As for babies squeezing a finger that is a response to something being in their hand. An instinct to squeeze a finger would mean that babies would run around and find a finger to squeeze and would not ever let go, unless forced. In which case they would then move on to another finger. As for "sucking" it is a response from their stomach being empty and telling the brain it is hungry. Read a book!

The following comment supporting the idea that humans have instinct is wrong.

[Sex is not a learned response. How did the first humans mate without the general knowledge of others? Because it's an instinct.]

Hominids (the first humans), did have instincts, because their ancestors (primates) from which they evolved and were still closely linked DO have instincts. Hominids retained some of the instincts from their primate ancestors. However, MODERN DAY HUMANS DO NOT HAVE INSTINCTS. This is a scientifically proven fact that is irrefutable. Any other comments that humans do have instincts are simply misinformed opinion.


Humans have lost instincts. Early hominids may have had instincts, for they were still somewhat closely related to primates, which do have instincts. However, modern day humans DO NOT have instincts.


Job Training and Career Qualifications
Forensic Science

What education or training do you need to become a forensic anthropologist?

Forensic Anthropology- If You Like Biological sciences, history, anthropology and archeology, forensic anthropology may be right for you. The major duties of this position are helping the (Medical Examiner) or coroner with the recovery and identification of human remains. This work includes estimating biological profile's, sex, height, race, ect.) of skeletal remains and assessing the causes of skeletal trauma. You May have to visit an internment site, help excavate it, and examine tissue or skeletal remains for the purpose of identifying the deceased person and helping to determine the probable time and cause of death.

Being a forensic Anthropologist requires a great deal of educational preparation. You need a bachelor's Degree in a subject Such as Chemistry, Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, or Anthropology, and a Grauate Degree, Preferably a doctorate in anthropology or human biology. You need a PhD and at least three years of experience in forensic anthropology when seeking board certification in the field.

Although you may be able to work in the field with fewer credentials, having the postgraduate education makes you a more attractive candidate. Most forensic Anthropologists work at universities and serve as consultants to MEs and the courts.


During which century was American archaeology closely linked to physical and social anthropology and linguistics?

Until the 20th Century most world-wide archaeology, including American, was done as historical archaeology. Meaning archaeologists referred to historical documents and narratives to assist them in locating and excavating sites as well as to help them explain what activities occurred at these sites. In fact many archaeologists of this time spent little time in the field and were called, in anthropological jargon, "armchair archaeologists."

It wasn't until the early decades of the 20th century, that archaeologist began to realize the relevance of the other anthropological fields (i.e. biological, cultural, and linguistic) to their work. Notable figures from this time period include: Lewis Binford, Alfred Kidder, Franz Boas, Alfred Kroeber, Edward Sapir, etc...

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