The scientific study of the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural development of humans.

4,421 Questions
Information Science and Libraries

What percentage of land on earth is dominated by humans?

29% of Earth is land mass. Of that 29% humans occupy less than 1% of that area. Of the remaining 28% about 40% is pure wilderness. 14% is true desert and 15% has desert like characteristics. 9% is Antarctica. Most of the remaining 22% are agricultural areas. There may be other areas with a human footprint of some kind.

Small Business and Entrepreneurship
Animated TV Series

Did Robert Ripley play in Major League Baseball?

No, he never played in the major leagues. He played semi-pro baseball in 1906 and briefly quit in 1908. He tried out for the New York Giants in 1913, but an injury ended his baseball hopes. Robert Ripley was an American cartoonist, entrepreneur and amateur anthropologist. He was also the creator of the famed "Ripley's Believe It or Not".


What is a sentence of sociology and anthropology?

I got my bachelor's degree in socialology from Virgina tech

History of Science

Forms nerves and the brain?

nervous tissue


What are the different human races?

Over time many different racial classifications have existing numbering anywhere between 6 and several hundred. Below are a few of these.

* Khoid (Hottentot) race * Sanid (Bushmen) race * Central Congoid race (Geographic center and origin in the Congo river basin) * Bambutid race (African Pygmies) * Aethiopid race (Ethiopia, Somalia) * Mediterranid race (from Mediterranean areas) * Dinaric race (predominant in western Balkans [Dinaric Mountains] and northern Italy) * Alpine race * Ladogan race (named after Lake Ladoga; indigenous to Russia; includes Lappish subrace of arctic Europe) * Nordish or Northern European race * Armenid race (Armenia, Syria, Lebanon and northern Iraq) * Turanid race (Kazakhstan, Hungary and Turkey) * Irano-Afghan race (Iran and Afghanistan, Iraq, Turkey) * Indic or Nordindid race (Pakistan and northern India) * Dravidic race (India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka) * Veddoid race (remnant Australoid population in central and southern India) Melanesian race (New Guinea, Papua, Solomon Islands) * Australian-Tasmanian race (Australian Aborigines) * Northeast Asian or Northern Mogoloid race (China, Manchuria, Korea and Japan) * Southeast Asian or Southern Mongoloid race (China, Indochina, Thailand, Myanmar [Burma], Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines) * Micronesian-Polynesian race * Ainuid race (remnants of aboriginal population in northern Japan) * Tungid race (Mongolia and Siberia, Eskimos) * Amerindian race (American Indians)

Indigenous Australians
Society and Civilization

How has modern civilization impacted the spiritual lives of indigenous peoples?

It's native to a particular area or country. Certainly there have been different impacts in different areas and countries. But overall one could say that modern civilization has effected the spiritual lives of indigenous peoples by exposing them to ideas and viewpoints that their spiritual traditions had not previously encountered. A simple example would be air travel. Ancient mythologies typically tell of supernatural beings or spirits who fly through the air. Exposure to airplanes and the perfectly ordinary human beings flying in airplanes necessarily changes the meaning of "one who flies."

Other modern technologies have changed the way all people, not just indigenous peoples, think about the difference between what is spiritual and what is "natural."

Considering how accustomed we have become to special affects and pyrotechnics, any "god" would have a hard time impressing 21st Century Humanity.

Many things which we consider quite ordinary in modern civilization would have been considered miraculous and signs of deity only a relatively short time ago:

talking at a distance .... telephone

appearing in a crystal... television

music / voices from the air ... radio

traveling across the world in a single day

healing deadly diseases

plucking fire from "nowhere" ... matches

killing / wounding at a distance ... gun powder

seeing through solid material ... x rays, sensors

Social Sciences
Philosophy and Philosophers

What is positivism?

Positivism is a philosophical and ontological (what exists) position in which there can be something which is 'positive', 'truthful' or 'known'. It often espouses that there is an external reality which can be objectively studied.

An example of a positivist statement might be, 'trees have leaves'. A relativist might argue that some trees only have leaves some of the time, some trees have 'leaves' which can be known as other things and so on.

A deconstructionist might say that you cannot consider the tree without the rest of it, and where does a leaf begin and end? Is it not also composed of water, sunlight, air etc?

A phenomenologist would also add that as all we can speak from is our own experience, we do not know that the leaves we see are the same as another person's.

Looking at discourse we might ask what a leaf is? We created the words so that we could understand each others' concepts, but as Korzybsi said, 'The map is not the territory'- the words we speak are not the same as the thing itself, they're just what we use to describe them.

It is usually a safer bet to be a critical realist, who would say that we can all agree that there is something there which we can look at (and come up with relatively sturdy concepts around) but we each have our own experience of it.

All is well and everything goes well.There is nothing to regret.


What is the relationship between sociology and anthropology to the other sciences?

Anthropology is examined the fundamental problems of human existence (origin and development) in the natural and cultural environment. The most popular object of the anthropology research is studying communities at the local level (an isolated tribe, the village community).

Sociology is the science about formation, development and functioning of society, its elements, social relations and social processes.

Common to sociology and anthropology is the study of problems: how is constructed social bond that unites people in the community or society, what are the cultural forms and social practices in different societies, how a person replicates and produces some type of sociality.

Politics and Government

Who was allowed to vote in Jamestown in pre 1670s?

Only Males who had experienced a supernatural religious experience were allowed to vote. This went for all the "Puritan" influenced colonies from Jamestown north, such as Plymouth Rock etc. Some smaller communities kept these conditions until the American Republic was formed.

Philosophy and Philosophers
History of Science

Man is a social animal who said this?


Travel & Places

What is the benefit of tourism?

Tourism brings money and jobs into a city or country. Tourists can boost a local economy by spending money at hotels, airports, stores and entertainment centers.

History of Ireland

Why do Irish people have red hair?

Less than 10% are.

In the UK red hair is generally associated with people of Celtic descent, i.e Scotland and Ireland. It is believed the people of Scotland came from 5 different ethnic groups who occupied or invaded northern Britain in the dark ages. In all of recorded history, red-haired people have never been mentioned as a group except by the Romans.

The 'Picts' where foes who the Romans fought and were described as having red-hair and 'large limbs' by Roman historian Tacitus. Modern historians with the help of anthropologists have placed red-hair as a unique characteristic belonging to the Picts, who were characteristic to what is now regarded as Scottish.

As far as the world-wide distribution of red-hair is concerned, it would be fair to say that the majority may well have descended from this North-Western European region, although as with all variations between people, mutations in genes can occur and be maintained in any population provided there is no detrimentus effect to the populations growth.

As for the reasons for red-hair, it's not easy to see any immediate selective advantage in terms of evolution. Here is some information of the genetics behind red-hair and this seems to provide

a clue....

Variation in both skin and hair pigmentation is due to varied amounts of the chemicals eumelanin (brown/black melanins) and phaeomelanin (red/yellow melanins) produced by melanocytes ("colour-cells").

The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is a regulator of eu- and phaeomelanin production in the melanocytes and mutations in this gene are known to cause coat colour changes in many mammals. Studies on Irish and Dutch populations have significantly linked variations in the MC1R gene to red-hair.

Also, so called 'loss-of-function' mutations in the human MC1R gene are known to be common and have recently been shown to be associated with red-hair. One other interesting point is that recent work has shown that some variants on the MC1R gene may be preferentially associated with hair colour rather than

skin type.

Because the primary function of melanins is thought to be for both 'photoprotection' and 'photosensitising` (eu- and phaeomelanins respectively), this offers reason to suggest that MC1R variants (most red-heads) are a risk factor, possibly independent of skin type, for melanoma susceptibility.

Why would mutations occur if such variations in MC1R

originally arose in areas of northern-Europe. Maybe it was because there was no selection against such mutations occurring in that region of the world. Due to the poor quality of weather in this area of the world, any mutations in MC1R would hold no relevance as the UV-levels would be significantly low enough to cause no damage despite decreased melatonin protection.

Unfortunately this assumes that MC1R mutations occurring in 'hot-climates' would result in high mortality rates occurring before age of parenthood which is probably unlikely. Other than that, I can't think of any other reason to suggest why red-hair originated in north-west Europe other than by random chance

Indigenous Australians
Society and Civilization

How modern civilization has impacted the spiritual lives of the indigenous peoples you explored?

Everyplace I visited, civilization have turned the populace into an individualist. The spirit of commune was lost. Acts 4:32And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul: neither said any of them that ought of the things which he possessed was his own; but they had all things common.

Philippine Food

What are the Zambales' native foods and products?

One of Zambales' native food is the so-called "dinengdeng" or vegetable dishes cooked with fish sauce/bagoong. Dinengdeng may be prepared in varied ways depending on the available vegetable (usually leafy ones) in a particular locality.

Products of Zambales includes the 'pastilyas' of Iba, sweet mangoes and what else....!?

History, Politics & Society
Political Science

How is history related to economics philosophy psychology sociology political science?

The repetiton on its order of existence, there is no changes on its principles it is only repeated

Endangered, Vulnerable, and Threatened Species

How many races of humans are there?

The Torah speaks of three branches of post-Flood mankind: Yefet (Jafeth), Ham, and Shem (the three sons of Noah; Genesis ch.10).
The children of Yefet are (broadly speaking) the Europeans (Caucasians).
The children of Ham include the ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Nubians, Bantu (and sub-Saharan Africans in general), and many others.
The children of Shem include the ancient Assyrians, Elamites, Arameans, Lyddians, and other Semitic peoples. One group of Semites gave rise to the Arabs, Hebrews, Moabites, Ammonites, Edumeans and others.

Oceans and Seas
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean

What continent is bordered by the Indian ocean to the west and the pacific ocean to the east?

That's Australia bud

Travel & Places
Native American History

What is circle justice?

circle justice is an aboriginal group that heals and doesn't punish the accused. The accused may go to circle justice in order to not go to jail. But first, you have to fill out an application to see if you are approved by The Keeper in Circle Justice.

Circle of Justice is a kind of healing system, instead of going to jail, those who commited a crime and wanted to become better persons, decided to spend a year in a desert island, where they do some rituals, and have enough time to reflect on themselves an the reasons they had to be mean. After a year there, eventually they come out better, with a new philosophy of life.


Are there more natural blonde women in the world than natural blonde men?

Not 100% sure but I hear it's 50% - 50%

Game Shows
Gay Lesbian and Bisexual
Deal or No Deal
McFly (band)

How do you deal with homophobia?

To deal with homophobia from a peer/friend/family member, just ignore it at first but don't give in to their ignorance and passively hide your ways. Be proud of who you are if that is the case. Never be ashamed and hide/disguise yourself as a heterosexual if that's not who you are. It can mentally destroy both you and your fake partner, if you ever obtained one to cover your true self up. If it was a personal, hurtful situation with friends or family, peacefully confront that person, telling them that you are proud and what you are is not a result from choice. Homophobia usually results from people not knowing what something is. I don't believe that homophobia is a fear; it's just pure ignorance. Most homophobes believe that a homosexual is attracted to ALL members of the same sex and are afraid to approach them. Sometimes, homophobes may be jealous because they know that opposite-sex relationships can be very hurtful and hard. Heterosexuals who are homophobic may be ashamed of their own orientation, so be careful when dealing with them because it may lead to a breakdown. Whatever you do, just stay true to yourself. If you have a friend who is constantly knocked around because of homophobic peers, stick up for them with all of your heart. :)


What are some examples of cultural symbols?

a peace sign a peanut butter jar a middle finger and braces. but if u have braces dont kill donkeys

Social Sciences

What are the main features of anthropology?

Studies human variation and evolution over the times.

Studies human and animal remains, remains of the food they had eaten, shelters, tools to figure out what were going on in their time.

Global Warming

Name 3 sources of carbon dioxide?

  1. Burning fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas).
  2. Breathing.
  3. Vegetation rotting.
Ancient History

When did man first walk on earth?

Note: This question was originally placed in the Science category and generated both science and religion based responses. Subsequently, the original poster reiterated his desire that the question be answered in a scientific rather than a religious context. Quote: I put it in here, because I want a scientific answer. Unquote

Considering the fact that this question was placed in the Science and Environment FAQs rather than in the Religion and Spirituality FAQs, an appropriate response would be that "hominoids," which belong to the Hominoidea super-family of primates and include apes and humans, are thought to have first walked on earth around 6 million years ago.

For those who are looking for an answer based on religious teachings, please see related questions in those categories.

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