Pontius Pilate was a Roman citizen, a prelate appointed by the emperor to oversee the province of Judea. He was responsible for releasing Jesus to be crucified. Between the Pilate of the New Testament and the Pilate of history there is nothing in common. The Pilate of the New Testament is subservient to the Jews, acceding to their every wish, even to murdering an innocent prisoner. The Pilate of history is noted for his hatred of the Jews and his cruelties to them. It was these which provoked his recall. Some have noted quite a remarkable difference between what we know of the regular character of Pilate due to a number of merciless actions during his governorship and his being portrayed as weak and vacilating by the gospel writers.
Since the gospels have been found to be accurate in numerous other instances they could be 'given the benefit of the doubt' here even if there were no additional evidence. However it has been discovered that a certain Sejanus who was like a patron or protector of Pilate, was removed from his position in AD31 as he was found to have been plotting against the emperor of the day. This turn of events would have made the political position of Pilate very weak in AD33, the likely time when Jesus was tried. It would have made the leverage used by the Jews when they said 'if you release this man you are not a friend of Caeser,' particularly strong, as Pilate would have been wanting to demonstrate loyalty lest he be implicated with his friend Sejanus. Pilate of course knew that the Jews hated the Romans, but that they had it 'over him' should they report disloyal conduct on his part. His vacilation was no doubt due to being caught between a rock and a hard place. He certainly seemed to believe in Jesus' innocence but reluctantly gave the Jews this favor to save his own neck, at least for a time.
A ruler from the Roman Empire during time of Jesus who held massive amounts of wealth due to the over taxation of the poor.
I personally believe that the Gospels portray Pilate not as "weak and and vacilating" but as cruel, heartless, arrogant, politically-insensitive, and without the slyness and cunning of the various Herods. All this made it easy for the Pharisees, Sadduccees, and Herodians to politically ambush him.
Here's a few from the King James version
Ecc 1:2 Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity.
Joh 10:1 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.
Eze 7:11 Violence is risen up into a rod of wickedness: none of them shall remain, nor of their multitude, nor of any of their's: neither shall there be wailing for them.
Psa 76:11 Vow, and pay unto the LORD your God: let all that be round about him bring presents unto him that ought to be feared.
In the King James version
In the King James version
the name/word - hector - does not appear at all.
The Gutenberg Bible was printed in Latin.
The Gutenberg Bible was an edition of the Latin Vulgate (which means it was printed in Latin) and was printed before the Protestant Reformation, meaning it was printed before English Bibles.
Asalam o alykum, it came two times in HOLY QURAN, sura MUHAMMAD and sura YUNUS, jazak ALLAH.
In the King James version
the word - froward - appears 21 times (twice in number 4 below)
the word - frowardly - appears once
the word - frowardness - appears 3 times
Corban (Qorban-Hebrew)(Korban'-Greek) means an 'offering' or a 'gift dedicated to God', and was used in the Hebrew scriptures at: Leviticus 1:2, 3; 2:1; Numbers 5:15; 6:14, 21, Ezekiel 20:28 and 40:43.
In Jesus time, the word was used in the paralell accounts at: Mark 7:9-13 and Matthew 15:3-6.
A bad practice had developed among the Jews, ignoring the obligation of 'honoring one's parents'(Exodus 20:12)(Deuteronomy 5:16)(Ephesians 6:2), and caring for their needs as they aged.
The religious leaders, had come up with the idea that if a person didn't want to share necessities with his parents, he simply had to say that these necessities were 'corban' or 'offerings dedicated to God' and he wouldn't have to share anything, though he could still use these on himself until his own death. As usual, the religious leaders of the day professed to honor God, but their hearts were far away from Him, consequently, hypocritical teachings such as this, were condemned by Jesus.-(Matthew 15:7-9)
There is no person of that name in the Bible according to my concordance.
Your are probably referring to Simon the Sorcerer or Simon the Magician (in Latin Simon Magus) and he first appears in Acts 8:9-14. It is said by some that it was this Simon who was in Rome and not Simon Peter.
In the King James version
the word - follow - appears 86 times
the phrase - follow me - appears 25 times
and there are also these, which are close
the word - followers - appears 8 times
the word - followeth - appears 15 times
the word - following - appears 43 times
He suffered for 18 years and he lost everything.
He lost everything except for his wife.
No the name Scott does not appear in the King James Version.
One of the most common words (number 20 in the list) in the Bible.
In the King James version
the word - But - appears 3992 times
In the King James version
the phrase - don't be afraid - does not appear at all
the phrase - do not be afraid - does not appear at all
the phrase - be not afraid - appears 28 times
(The phrase "fear not" occurs 62 other locations in the KJV)
Although the Bible does not specifically say when Adam and Eve and everything else were created by God, various men have calculated backwards from known dates, and have calculated it to be 4004BC [Ussher] to 5760BC [Setterfield], that is, from 6000 to 8000 years ago. There's a big difference between that, compared with roughly a quarter of a million years according to evolutionary theory if you leave God out: and that varies according to different science books! People must decide which side of the fence they are going to jump to.
It must be understood that the Biblical times of thousands of years and evolutionary times of millions of years are not mutually-exclusive, but is simply Time dated using two different methods or measuring sticks.
Biblical -using ASTRONOMICAL time (time for earth to complete an orbit around the Sun.. (Sometimes called ORBITAL time)
Evolutionary -using ATOMIC time (time to complete so many oscillations of a particular atom.
For example, 1 second is for 9,192,631,770 oscillations of a a cesium-133 atom. )
Both measure the same thing using different measuring-sticks, so although the results appear completely different they are actually the same.
For example, 4004 years BC ASTRONOMICALLY equates to 14 Billion Years ATOMICALLY
In the King James version
the word - walk - appears 212 times
the word - walked - appears 122 times
the word - walkedst - appears once
the word - walkest - appears 7 times
the word - walketh - appears 41 times
the word - walking - appears 30 times
Mark's Gospel is an excellent example in the use of chiastic structures and parallel structures, demonstrating an impressive literary ability on the part of its author.
A chiastic structure is a literary sequence in which an opening set of events is contrasted with another set of events that mirrors the first, with the order reversed. A parallel structure is a literary sequence in which an opening set of events is contrasted with another set of events that parallels the first.The purpose of these structures is to link, by association, the two events of each pair in the minds of the readers, in order to create emphasis or develop a theme that would otherwise not be apparent.
This answer will deal with the following examples:
B .The baptism of Jesus (1:9)
C . The voice of God from heaven, "Thou art my beloved son" (1:11)
D . The forty days in the wilderness as an allusion to Elijah and Moses (1:13)
E . The people were astonished at what Jesus taught (1:22)
F . Jesus casts out an unclean spirit (1:23-26)
G . Pharisees took counsel with the Herodians how they might destroy Jesus (3:6)
H . Demons, whenever they see Jesus, fall down and say that he is the Son of God.
-- Jesus commands that they tell no one of this (3:11-12)
I .. Jesus calls the 12 disciples (3:13-19)
J .. Jesus rejects his own family: he has a new family, his followers (3:31-35)
K . Jesus rebukes the wind (4:36-41)
L . The demoniac, wearing no clothes (5:15), cries out that Jesus not torment him and Jesus sends out the demons (5:1-20)
M . Jesus comes into his own country (6:1)
-- Where he was brought up
N . The people misunderstand Jesus and he can do no mighty work (6:2-6)
O . Jesus sends out the disciples and curses those who will not receive them (6:7-11)
-- in sending the disciples with authority and expecting all to receive them, Jesus is asserting his own authority
P . Herod thinks that Jesus is John the Baptist risen from the dead (6:14)
Q . Herodias and her daughter conspire to kill John the Baptist (6:16-29)
R . Feeding the thousands, and related miracles and discourses (6:33-8:21)
S . Who do people say that I am (8:27)
T . Peter affirms faith in Jesus as the Christ (8:29)
U . Whosoever shall be ashamed of me: of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed (8:38)
V . The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and scribes (8:31a)
W . Be killed and after three days rise again (8:31b)
X . Prophecy of second coming (9:1)- Jesus tells the disciples that some of them would not taste death until they saw the kingdom of God coming with power.
B' .The Transfiguration of Jesus (9:2-3)
C' .The voice of God from heaven, "This is my beloved son" (9:7)
D' . Jesus talks to Elijah and Moses then to the disciples about Elijah (9:4-13)
E' .A great multitude was amazed at Jesus (9:15)
F' .Jesus cast out a dumb spirit (9:17-27)
G' .They shall kill the Son of man and he shall rise on the third day (9:31)
H' .Jesus clarifies his divine status, saying that he is not God: "Why call me good? There is none good but God" (10:18)
I' . Peter says the disciples have left all and followed Jesus (10:28)
J' . Those who have left their family for Jesus have a new family: all Jesus' followers (10:29-30)
K'. Jesus rebukes the 'sons of thunder', James and John (10:35-45 - cf 3:17)
L' .Blind Bartimaeus cries out for mercy and casts off his clothes, then Jesus heals him (10:46-52)
M' .Jesus comes into Jerusalem (11:1-10)
-- Where he will die
N' .Jesus misunderstands the fig tree that can provide no fruit (11:13-14)
O' .Jesus casts out them that sold and bought in the Temple and curses them for making the Temple a den of thieves (11:15-17)
-- Jesus is asserting his authority
P' .Jesus asks whether the baptism of John is from heaven or of men, and the priests, scribes and elders can not answer (11:30-33)
Q' .Parable of husbandmen who conspire to kill the vineyard owner's son (12:1-9)
X' .Prophecy of second coming (chapter 13)
-- on clouds of glory, within the lifetimes of some of those to whom he was speaking
R' .The Last Supper (14:17-25)
S' .Art thou the Christ, Son of God (14:61)
T' .Peter denies Jesus three times (14:66-72a)
U' .And when he thought thereon, Peter wept (14:72b)
V' .The chief priests, elders and scribes delivered Jesus to Pontius Pilate (15:1)
-- Delivering Jesus is a similar concept to rejecting him.
-- Both parts of the pair involve chief priests, elders and scribes
W' .Jesus dies and on the third day rises again (15:37, 16:6)
A' .The young man explains the departure of Jesus(16:6-8)
Note that Mark originally ended at 16:8, with the young man telling the women that Jesus was risen and they fled, telling no one, with no resurrection appearance of Jesus. Verses 16:9-25 form what is now known as the "Long Ending" (there was also, at one stage, a "Short Ending") and were added to the Gospel at a later stage, to provide resurrection appearances and to more or less harmonise it with the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Therefore, verses 16:8-25 do not form part of the chiastic structure of Mark's Gospel, and this chiastic structure encompasses the entire gospel, as defined by pair A.
In Mark 1:13, the story of Jesus going into the wilderness, where he was ministered by angels is an allusion to Elijah (1 Kings 19:5-7) who was ministered by an angel and in the wilderness forty days. There is no actual suggestion that Jesus fasted for this time, but those familiar with the story of Elijah are likely to have assumed he did do so, and this is made explicit in Matthew and Luke. This brings into play another allusion, to Moses when (Exodus 34:28) he fasted for 40 days while he wrote the words of the Ten Commandments on tablets. The author of Mark seems to have been adept at hidden messages, and this easily overlooked allusion neatly mirrors the Transfiguration in the second set.
Events E and F
In Mark's Gospel, some events not only form pairs across the chiasm, but also interact with each other. Mark repeatedly sandwiches one narrative that stands on its own within another narrative that would seem entirely coherent without it, in the form A1-B-A2. This is an advanced literary technique known to scholars as Markan intercalation, or simply Markan sandwich, by which Mark could emphasise important theological themes. Here we begin with Jesus teaching in the synagogue and the people were astonished at what Jesus taught (Mark 1:21-21) - this is A1 (but also event E in the framework structure). A man with an unclean spirit was in the synagogue and Jesus drove the spirit out of him - this is event B in the intercalation (also event F in the framework structure). In verse 1:27, we return as A2 to the theme of the people amazed, with parallel usage of "teaching with authority" (KJV translates teaching as its synonym 'doctrine'). The effect of this intercalation is to greatly magnify the amazement of the people compared to verse 22 alone. Sandwiched between the two verses in which the people in the synagogue were amazed, the impact of the miracle of the exorcism is also enhanced. The reader can not fail to be aware that what Jesus taught was almost beyond human understanding.
It is impossible for the author of Mark to have known that event G occurred, but it opens an excellent chiastic pair: Pharisees took counsel with the Herodians how they might destroy Jesus ... They shall kill the Son of man and he shall rise on the third day. They will kill Jesus but they will not destroy him.
In Mark's Gospel, only outsiders call Jesus the Son of God*. Jesus refers to himself as the Son of Man, while Peter calls him the Christ (anointed one). In 3:11-12, the demons fall down and call Jesus the Son of God, but Jesus is quick to instruct them to tell no one, thus no more than an implied admission. The demons would know Jesus' divine status, but if this was a blasphemy then they were outsiders and brought no disrepute upon the Christian community. In the matching event of the pair (10:18), Jesus once again clarifies his status, saying that he is not God yet not denying that he is the Son of God.
*Verse 1:1 does have the author call Jesus the Son of God. This is not present in some early manuscripts and it is possible that it was not original.
Pair J uses the example of Jesus in the first passage to comfort those Christians of the author's own time who had been rejected by their families, or who had left their families to become wandering preachers or commune members. However, in verses 3:31-35, Event J, Mark risks portraying Jesus as callous or out of his mind when he sends his brothers and his mother away, proclaiming that he has a new family. This is negated because the passage is part of a local chiastic structure in which Jesus' friends, the scribes and perhaps his family are concerned about the mental state of Jesus, but Jesus proves that he is not possessed by the devil: JaThe multitude is so thick that they could not so much as eat bread (3:20)JbJesus' friends say he is beside himself (3:21)JcScribes say Jesus is possessed and by the devil casts out devils (3:22)JdHow can Satan cast out Satan? (3:23)JeIf a kingdom be divided the kingdom can not stand (3:24)Je'If a house be divided the house can not stand (3:25)Jd'If Satan is divided he can not winJc'Because they said he has an unclean spirit (3:30)Jb'Jesus' family comes to him. Jesus says his followers are his family (3:31-35)Ja'The multitude is so thick that Jesus enters a boat (4:1)
Pair J also risks portraying Jesus as opposed to the traditional concept of family, by encouraging his followers to leave their families. Right on cue, Jesus is given several opportunities to show his commitment to family:
The celebration of the Passover Feast, which becomes the Last Supper, beginning "when it was evening" (Mark 14:17), or when the sun went down: approximately 6 pm and the beginning of the day of the Passover by Jewish reckoning. Jesus says, "This is my body," a metaphor that will be reflected in his burial.
-- Mark knew that the duration of the Passover meal was three hours and that it concluded with the singing of a hymn.
When was about 9 p.m. Mark then has Jesus and the disciples go to the Garden of Gethsemane, where Jesus went to pray. He suffered alone and in agony, asking God that, if possible, he take this cup (his destiny to be crucified) away from Jesus.
-- Meanwhile his disciples, Peter, James and John, were not able to remain awake.
-- "Could you not watch one hour?" Jesus asked. The process was repeated two more times. The disciples could not watch one, two or three hours. It was now midnight.
The betrayal of Jesus, the darkest deed in human history, came next, occurring at the stroke of midnight.
This will be reflected by the darkness at midday.
At 3:00 a.m., Jesus was led away for a trial before the high priest and other senior priests and elders.
-- We know the time of the first trial because Peter's threefold denial of Jesus followed, once each hour until the cock crowed, marking the watch between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m., known as cockcrow.
When it was 6 o'clock, "As soon as it was morning", Jesus was led by the chief priests, scribes and elders for trial by Pontius Pilate.
At the trial, Pontius Pilate sentences Jesus to be crucified.
At 9 o'clock: "It was the third hour when they crucified him."
When "the sixth hour had come" (12 noon), darkness covered the whole earth, reflecting the betrayal at 12 midnight.
The three hours of darkness, until 3 p.m. mirror the agony in the Garden of Gethsemene. Jesus last words, "My God. My God, why hast thou forsaken me?" reflect the recognition that his prayer in the Garden has not been answered. At 3 o'clock Jesus cried out and gave up the ghost.
Joseph of Arimathea then asked Pilate for the body of Jesus, so that he could be buried before the Sabbath began at 6 p.m., when the sun went down.
The presence of 8 time periods of three hours means that there must be an odd number of events around them. I believe that Mark intended the trial before Pontius Pilate to be a 'crossover' event (shown as Dx) that is not really in either set, both mirroring the trial before the Sanhedrin (the last event of the first set) but also, by sentencing Jesus to be crucified, mirroring Jesus being crucified (thus the first event of the second set).
Several minor structures have been found in Mark's Gospel. In some cases the structures are undeniable, but in other cases the challenge is to ensure that the structure is real - did Mark intend a chiastic structure to exist or is it only evident in hindsight.
The story of the fig tree is an example of a well known chiastic structure used by Mark (11:12-21):
A Jesus takes authority over a fig tree by cursing it (11:12-14)
B Jesus takes authority over merchandisers at temple (11:15,16)
C My house will be a house of prayer for all nations (11:17a)
C' You have made my house into a den of robbers (11:17b)
B' Jewish leaders are losing their authority (11:18,19)
A' Disciples recognize Jesus' authority in the withered fig tree (11:20,21)
An example I would question is Mark 1:21-28, with its strained or over-generalised comparison of some pairs:
A. Location They went to Capernaum; and when the sabbath came, he the synagogue and taught. (1:21)
B. Teaching with Authority They were astounded at his teaching, for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. (1:22)
C. Unclean Spirit Just then there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit (1:23)
D. Dialog And he cried out, "What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the Holy One of God." (1:24)
D'. Dialog But Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" (1:25)
C'. Unclean Spirit And the unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. (1:26)
B'. Teaching with Authority They were all amazed, and they kept on asking one another, "What is this? A new teaching-with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him." (1:27)
A'. Location At once his fame began to spread throughout the surrounding region of Galilee. (1:28)
In Biblical times Purple was a symbol of royalty and riches due to the scarcity of its dye.
There is slightly more to the meaning than the simple explanation given above. Look up the insect they used to create the color purple as a die for cloth.
The weight of the gold rings he asked for came to seventeen hundred shekels, not counting the ornaments, the pendants and the purple garments worn by the kings of Midian or the chains that were on their camels' necks.
She makes coverings for her bed; she is clothed in fine linen and purple.
And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple robe and put his own clothes on him. Then they led him out to crucify him
They put a purple robe on him, then twisted together a crown of thorns and set it on him.
One of those listening was a woman named Lydia, a dealer in purple cloth from the city of Thyatira, who was a worshiper of God. The Lord opened her heart to respond to Paul's message.
The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and was glittering with gold, precious stones and pearls. She held a golden cup in her hand, filled with abominable things and the filth of her adulteries.
Purple in KJV biblical text
New Testament = 9 times Mark, Luke, John, Acts and Revelation
Old Testament = 39 times
Get a Strongs Concordance on line and look up the occurrences and actual meanings however, don't simply assume purple is a direct translation from Hebrew, Chaldee or Greek to English.
In the King James version
the word - redeem - appears 56 times
the word - redeemed - appears 62 times
the word - redeemedst - appears once
the word - redeemer - appears 18 times
the word - redeemeth - appears twice
the word - redeeming - appears 3 times
the word - redemption - appears 20 times
There are too many verses with the word - redeemed - to be listed here.
Some of them - one from each of the books the word appears in - are listed here
This is ok: when he said I die daily he meant he no longer lives for himself but every day he becomes closer to God by doing God's will and not his own.
This is not correct: Paul was also referring to the daily possibility of his martyrdom. 1 Corinthians 15 v31. 2 Corinthians 11 details some of the suffering he endured over a period of time.
This is the real answer:
We are all pieces of divinity playing the game of life. The purpose of any real spiritual path is to become closer to the God from which we came. In order to do this we must let go of the false misconception of ourselves. We must come to terms with things. We must come to the realization that we are not our mind, our body, or some external position. In the process of doing this it is as if the old self is dying. You may continue to exist in a certain body and do certain things, but you become unattached to them, as they are no longer you.
This is a continual process, because to exist in this world you must be something. So no sooner have you shed one identity than you have a new one that is closer to God. Unfortunately it is already obsolete and must be let go. Letting go is the reality of spiritual growth, to continually let go of the identity that binds you to this world. This is much like it feels at the moment of physical death, the realization that the person you were is gone and you must let go and face the unknown future.
On the spiritual journey it is possible to look back a week, a month, or a year and see distinct identities that you were but now no longer are. They have all died, as will the identity you wear today. In a way you do die every day.
Clarification & Commentary: I am thinking of the quote from the cartoon character POGO who said "we have seen the enemy and he is us". Ultimately, we are "all . . . [pieces]. . . of divinity" because we are not merely body and soul, but are also spirit. "God is a spirit" and is likewise referred to in Hebrews 12:9 as "the Father of spirits". The specific aspect of our experience that is to "die daily" is condensed in the term "I" when Paul said in Galatians 2:20 "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me". IMHO, the "I" that Paul referred to may be rationally understood as our acquired ego identity and development; in other words, the person you have become over a lifetime of conditioning, how you were rasied, the language you speak, enculturalization, psychological formation, emotional development, and your volitional self determination; this is what we have the proclivity to cling to. The "I" or self reflects the sum of our behavioral uniqueness; including the cognitive (mental), affective (emotional) and volitional (will) aspects of our overall humanness. So, as you "continually let go of . . . [this very] . . . identity that binds you to this world", it is more and more replaced with the indwelling Christ, our entrance into a relationship to the Spirit of God, producing the spirit of life, spiritual mindedness, the fruit of the spirit, peace, joy, discernment, etc: In terms of our spiritual growth, it's like shifting from 2nd to 3rd gear so your car will run more smoothly at a higher speed. Unfortunately, most people do not make the shift, do not die to self, remain fixated and imprisoned to only what they know and what they can grasp, to a lifestyle of self-absorption and consequently remain both in this world and a self-limiting byproduct of it. Our lives become more of an incidental reflections of our culture bound awareness instead of the growing purity of consciousness toward the new life that Christ can and will produce in us. One reason we voluntarily accept Christ is because this frees us from conformity to the world, and provides a powerful alternative; a new and transformed life.
Footnote: I do not quote scriptures to preach, but as textual references to help authenticate my viewpoint in the ongoing 2000 year old dialogue of Christian faith that has lasted since the beginning of the ancient church.
Matthew 10:1-42 describes Jesus as he was training his twelve apostles to do the preaching work and warning them of the persecution that would follow.
(Matthew 10:7-8)The Apostles were given special healing powers to prove that God's spirit was now with THEM and no longer with the Jews.
Jesus gave specific instructions on how to preach and what to expect when others realized they were taking a stand for the truth and objected.(Matthew 10:16-39)
Background Info: The Jewish nation had been God's chosen people for over a thousand years. They'd had miraculous signs of his presence at their temple for centuries, but now, with the arrival of the foretold Messiah, Jesus, God was no longer using the Jewish Nation. With the fulfillment of messianic prophecy, God was operating through this new little group of Christians, founded by his son. God's people would no longer have a physical Law Code(given to Israel), but would have the law of love 'written on their hearts'.
The Apostles were to preach to the Jews about Jesus(Matthew 10:5-6) They were to preach that 'the Kingdom of God was near' in the fact that Jesus was the Messiah (the King of God's Kingdom) and was there with them. The Jews were given the first option to accept the foretold Messiah. (Matthew 10:40)
Chapter 4, verses 10 and 11:
But the LORD said, "You have been concerned about this vine, though you did not tend it or make it grow. It sprang up overnight and died overnight. But Nineveh has more than a hundred and twenty thousand people who cannot tell their right hand from their left, and many cattle as well. Should I not be concerned about that great city?"
Jonah was a prophet in Israel. Nineveh was an incredibly evil city, not a part of Israel. Their evil became so great that God was about to remove them from the earth, for the good of everyone. Jonah was sent by God to warn them in advance, and provide a chance to repent and avoid disaster. Jonah would rather see them destroyed. Before you think that this is an example of vindictiveness on the part of God and his people, stop and consider that Nineveh was a major threat to Israel, and consider that they were absolutely ruthless with their captives, including skinning them alive. Would you have gone to warn them, or would you hope for their destruction? Also consider that the most vindictive character in this story has more in common with you and me than he does with God. Jonah finally goes to warn the Ninevites, then leaves the city, and sits on a hill under a tree to watch it's destruction from the front row. When the people repent, and the destruction does not occur, he is incensed. Jonah 4:10-11 is God's final response to Jonah's bad attitude. Note that if the destruction of the people didn't matter to him, at least the horrendous waste of good cattle might soften him. You can't say the Bible lacks irony.
Vulgate is a Latin translation of the Bible by Saint Jerome.
The gospels are entirely silent on Joseph's age.
Some Christians, particularly some Catholics, are concerned at the possibility that Mary did not remain a virgin throughout her married life, yet the gospels talk of Jesus having brothers and sisters. One solution that was developed was to envisage Joseph as an older man who had already been married and already had children. It seems rather unlikely that a poor and older carpenter would have been a suitable husband for a young virgin girl, but this view does allow him to be in his thirties or forties at the time Jesus was born.
The word "evangelist" is in the King James Version of the Bible 2 times. It is in 2 verses. Please see the related link below.