Brain

The center of our nervous system and daily thoughts, the brain is a complex, magnificent organ. Ask questions about parts of the brain and their functions here.

Asked in Neuroscience, Brain

What is dopamine?

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Dopamine is the major neurotransmitter of the reward circuit in the central nervous system. It also functions in movement and balance, among other things. It is a chemical found in the human brain that creates feelings of pleasure.
Asked in Brain

Are there any insects in human brain?

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no there isn't lool
Asked in Brain

Did neanderthals have smaller brains than humans?

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Their brain size was the same as modern humans.
Asked in Brain

What does your brains has to do with your nerves?

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The nervous system is made up of three parts: the receptor, the decider, and the effector. The receptor receives an stimulus and creates an electric impulse to be sent to the brain. The brain receives this impulse and decides what to do in order to react to the stimulus. Your brain then makes a decision and sends out an electric impulse to the effector which moves the muscle or activates a gland in your body which is a reaction to the stimulus.
Asked in Brain

What is the last stage of brain rush?

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Altimodilation is the final stage of brain rush.
Asked in Chickens and Roosters, Brain

How big is a chicken's brain?

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Average chicken brain is about the size of a mans thumb nail. Not big but sufficient for the chickens needs.
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How are human brains and monkeys brains different?

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Monkeys Brains are about 400g were as human brains are about 1400g and are 15cm, monkeys brains are only about 8cm long!
Asked in Brain

Why would a lack neurotransmitters change the function of the brain?

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Yes, signals would not pass between the nerve cells.
Asked in Mental Health, Canada, Brain, Dementia

Describe the impact of acquired brain injury in Canada?

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The impact of acquired brain injury in Canada is the same as anywhere else in the world. It takes a tremendous toll on family members and friends who will have to care for those affected because they have to do every basic daily living skill their family member was once capable of.
Asked in Brain

What does it mean the brain parenchyma shows periventricular T2 hyperintensity and a few scattered subcortical foci of increased T2 and flair signal intensity in the frontal lobes that are nonspecifi?

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what does this mean? Impression: There are scattered foci of T2/FLAIR hyperintensity within the periventricular, deep and subcortical white matter. The findings are nonspecific but may be seen in mild to moderate small vessel ischemic changes. No evidence for acute infarct or hemorrhage.
Asked in Nervous System, Brain

What does the medulla oblongata do?

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The medulla oblongata is the part of the brain that controls autonomic functions. Some of the functions that it controls are digestion, breathing, heart function, and swallowing.
Asked in Medication and Drugs, Brain

How long does syphilis take to affect the brain?

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It takes 10 - 20 years for syphilis to affect the brain.
Asked in Neuroscience, Nervous System, Brain

Separation of cerebellum from cerebrum?

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tentorium cerebelli separates your cerebellum from your cerebrum.
Asked in Brain, Beauty

What is beauty if your brain is empty?

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it doesn't if your beautiful or ugly you just have to be yourself! you dont have to be ashamebe of yourself
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology, Animated TV Series, Brain

How much brain do you use?

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About 10% of your brain ---------------------------------- Actually you use just about all of your brain
Asked in Brain

Which part of the brain is sometimes called the 'higher brain'?

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The part of the brain that deals with the higher level thinking skills is the cerebrum. or somethin importatn
Asked in Brain

List of all drugs which cross blood brain barrier?

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Drug Class Generic Name (Trade Name) Absorption Distribution Elimination Alkylating Agents melphalon (Alkeran) oral - variably and incompletely absorbed from the GI tract, decreased in presence of food moderately high protein binding, Vz 0.5 l/kg deactivated in plasma by hydrolysis cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) oral - high bioavailability; intravenous crosses blood-brain barrier (limited) hepatic biotransformation (includes activation); 5 - 25% eliminated unchanged (renal); parent and metabolites eliminated in urine are toxic to bladder ifosfamide (Ifex) intravenous infusion only active metabolites cross blood-brain barrier (limited) hepatic biotransformation (includes activation); 10 - 60% eliminated unchanged (increases with increasing dose - renal); parent and metabolites eliminated in urine are toxic to bladder busolfan (Myleran) oral - completely absorbed from GI tract rapid hepatic biotransformation procarbazine (Matulane) oral - Rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Crosses blood-brain barrier. Hepatic biotransformation, very short elimination half-life. 70% renal elimination as metabolites. dacarbazine (Otic-Dome) Intravenous only limited access to CNS; low protein binding Extensive hepatic biotransformation; 50% renal elimination (1/2 unchanged). Antibiotics daunorubicin (Cerubidine) intravenous only body water, excluded by blood-brain barrier hepatic metabolism produces both active and inactive metabolites. daunorubicin or doxorubicin liposomes (Daunoxome or Doxil) intravenous infusion only limited to vascular fluid, animal studies indicate delivery to CNS; tissues selectively "acquire" liposomes. greatly reduced hepatic metabolism compared to un-encapsulated drug doxorubicin (Adriamycin) intravenous only high protein binding; extensive uptake into many tissues, does not cross blood-brain barrier hepatic metabolism produces both active and inactive metabolites; tissue metabolism results in production of free radicals. idarubicin (Idamycin) intravenous infusion only extensive tissue binding of both native drug and metabolite; very high plasma protein binding hepatic and extrahepatic metabolism to equipotent metabolite; elimination primarily biliary as active metabolite. plicamycin (Mithracin) intravenous infusion only crosses blood-brain barrier, concentrated in Kupffer cells, renal tubular cells and bone surfaces elimination is renal mitomycin (Mutamycin) intravenous only does not cross blood brain barrier hepatic biotransformation, 10% eliminated in urine unchanged (% increases as dose increases) pentostatin (Nipent) intravenous only crosses blood-brain barrier (CSF concentrations ~10% of plasma concentrations within 24 hours). Low plasma protein binding hepatic biotransformation, 30% - 70% eliminated in urine as unchanged drug mitoxantrone (Novantrone) intravenous infusion only rapid extensive distribution to tissues; high protein binding hepatic; long half-life (due to tissue binding & slow metabolism); small fraction eliminated unchanged. dactinomycin (Cosmegen) intravenous only does not cross blood brain barrier Minimal biotransformation; Elimination primarily biliary/fecal 50% unchanged (24 hours), another 10% unchanged in urine (24 hour); remainder of the drug is recovered within 1 week. Antimetabolites fluorouracil (Adrucil) intravenous only good tissue penetration, crosses blood brain barrier hepatic metabolism produces 2 active metabolites and catabolism; respiratory elimination as carbon dioxide; 7 - 20% unchanged in urine capecitabine (Xeloda) oral (pro drug) as for fluorouracil hepatic activation by conversion to 5 fluorouracil; elimination pattern as for 5 flurouracil fludarabine (Fludara) intravenous only distributed to whole body water RAPIDLY dephosphylated in serum to 2-fluoro-Ara-A, then phosphorylated intracellularly to active compound. Elimination is renal, approximately 20% unchanged 2-fluoro-Ara-A mercaptopurine (Purinethol) oral - variably and incompletely absorbed from the GI tract (up to 50%) Crosses blood-brain barrier but poorly; low protein binding Hepatic metabolism for both activation and catabolism; degraded by xanthine oxidase; 7 - 40% eliminated unchanged. gemcitabine (Gemzar) intravenous infusion only distribution of active metabolite is limited by saturable process. Giving gemcitabine at an excess rate WASTES drug (eliminated intact before conversion). Intracellular metabolism (saturable) to active metabolites. Hepatic deamination to inactive uracil metabolite. Hormonal Oncologics topotecan (Hycamtin) intravenous infusion only good tissue penetration, volumes approximately 2x body water, crosses blood brain barrier reversible pH-dependent hydrolysis to inactive moeity (low pH favors active compound), hepatic metabolism insignificant; 30% eliminated unchanged in urine leuprolide (Lupron) IM injection - 90% bioavailability; 1 month, 3 month and 4 month release formulations distributed to extracellular fluid volume; moderate (50%) protein binding. Metabolized to several inactive peptides. Less than 5% recovered as parent or pentapeptide metabolite. tamoxifen (Nolvadex) oral administration, bioavailability? ? Hepatic biotransformation with enterohepatic circulation. Prolonged elimination; Elimination primarily biliary/fecal, mostly as metabolites Mitosis inhibitors etopside (VP16) oral - variable dose-dependent oral bioavailability (F decreases as dose increases); intravenous Low and variable into CSF, concentration differentials between normal and cancerous tissues. Very high protein binding (97%). Protein displacement interactions and hypoalbuminemia are concerns. Hepatic biotransformation; up to 50 - 60% renal elimination (2/3 as unchanged drug); remainder fecal. Others hydroxyurea (Hydrea) Well absorbed following oral administration. Crosses the blood-brain barrier (very small molecular weight). Hepatic metabolism (inactivation), 80% renal elimination within 12 hours (50% unchanged); balance eliminated from lungs as CO2 paclitaxel (Taxol) intravenous only extensive extravascular distribution and/or tissue binding. Very high plasma protein binding. Hepatic p450 metabolism. Elimination primarily biliary / fecal. Variable renal elimination of unchanged drug. docetaxel (Taxotere) intravenous only widely distributed in tissues; slightly larger than body water; poor CNS penetration. Hepatic p450 metabolism. Elimination primarily biliary / fecal. cisplatin (Platinol) intravenous only does not penetrate CNS rapid non-enzymatic conversion to inactive metabolites. Elimination usually expressed as recovered platinum (only 50% after 5 days), platinum detected in tissues for months. aspariginase (Elspar) intravenous intramuscular slow sequestration by reticuloendothelial system; poor CNS penetration unknown pathway, only trace amounts appear in the urine following IV administration. Anti-toxicity amifostine (Ethyol) intravenous infusion only wide rapid distribution metabolised by alkaline phosphatase to active free thiol metabolite (binds cisplatin metabolites and alkylating agents and scavanges free radicals. Reaction favored in normal tissues (higher AP) dexrazoxane (Zinecard) intravenous only distributed to whole body water, low protein binding several hepatic metabolites, intracellular metabolite may be responsible for action though this is speculative at this time mesna (Mesnex) intravenous only volume of distribution approximates body water. rapid hepatic biotransformation to mesna disulfide; mesna disulfide is reduced to mesna by renal tubular epithelium, mesna binds and detoxifies metabolites of oxazophosphorines. I think it maybe useful for You :)
Asked in Brain

What are the largest and the smallest parts of the human brain?

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largest = cerebrum smallest = midbrain
Asked in Brain

How many brain cells in the human brain?

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There are around 200,000,000 brain cells in your brain.

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