Car Electronics and Lights

Gauges, speakers, signal lights, headlamps and cabin lamps are all parts of a car’s electronic equipment. The majority of cars use a 12-volt power source, and include a fuse for protection from power surge.

5,336 Questions
Consumer Electronics
Car Electronics and Lights
Car Stereos and Speakers
MP3 Players Audio and Sound Systems

How do you hook up a 1 farad capacitor to your amp?

A FARAD IS HUGE TO BEGIN WITH connect to amp? what an amplifier, output input?: people answer this question with no idea of what is the question .Answer 1You first have to determine which side of the cap is positive and which side is negative. You run a wire from the negative side to the chassis and for the positive side you run a cable from the battery to the terminal and from the terminal to the amp. so that the two positive wires join together on the positive terminal of the cap. Be careful not to mix up positive and negative on the cap because it could explode and cause damage. Answer 2Because the capacitor is used to filter changes in supply voltage to the amp, the capacitor should be as close to the amp as possible, and connected with heavy wiring. The capacitor also acts as a huge reservoir to supply lots of current as the amp signal hits high levels. By providing plenty of current when it is needed, distortion in the sound is minimized.

The key is lots of capacitance, as close to the amp as possible, and thick cables capable of carrying lots of current.

Answer 3Be very careful with that thing. The current output of a capacitor is the product of capacitance, in this case 1, and the change in voltage with time. Thus, if you do something to cause a quick change in voltage with that, you will get a very large current spike, possibly hundreds or even thousands of amps.

Also note for this reason you should really pre charge capacitors of this size. Let's say you have 1 ought wire run from your battery to the cap, with a resistance of .001 ohms. (I actually have no idea what the resistance of your wire is, I just made that up for argument's sake) When you connect the discharged capacitor, you are causing an instantaneous change in voltage. (IE dv/dt equals infinity) This means that the capacitor will appear to the circuit as a dead short. Thus, the _only_ thing limiting your current flow is the wire. Ohm's law states V equals IR. As the wire is only 0.001 ohms and the system is 12V, this means that when you connect that cap to your car battery it will ["try to"-j3h] draw 12000 amps. I don't think that's good for any part of your system.

The solution? Get a resistor and charge the cap through it. The resistor will limit the current flowing into the capacitor until it is fully charged. Then it is safe to connect as the potential between the capacitor and the battery will be 0VDC. A light bulb will work very well for this task, if you don't have any power resistors laying around. This will lengthen the life of both your battery and your capacitor. Also note that if you have a fuse between the battery and the cap, the surge current will blow the fuse without pre charging. If you have a switch or relay in between the cap and the battery, a pre charge circuit must be used as the surge current will weld the contacts closed. (I've seen it)

Answer 4Hi -Don't mind me but fortunately a car battery really can't put out 12,000 amps due to the limiting source impedance of the battery- You might get only a thousand amps at best !!!!(using thevian and norton theory)-

OK this is still dangerous. OK like a lot dangerous but the internal resistance of the source, the battery its self is also a part of the equation- Dead shorting a battery is bad news- also you might consider the time constant to charge the cap !!! Tc= R times C (five usually required for full charge)

Answer 5

In each "Time constant" (T) the potential on the capacitor will increase .67 of the remaining way to the battery potential. If the limiting resister is large, this could take minutes, if small then milliseconds. You want a few seconds.

Yeah LIKE anybody can go out and buy one. 1 farad is very big to charge that thing, it will take forever if and one volt supplied from a one ohms source and 1 ohm 1 x 1 x 5 = 5 seconds. Now it is almost fully charged. Some people just don't pay attention to what they read I guess. How to connect it to the input a very Good short for a very long time at the output the same results

Answer 6

First of all I'm going to say all you have to do is make sure that you use thick oxygen free car audio wire. I did a reinstall the other day and someone had used 220v household cable to wire their amp! Who does that? that being said single -aught is going to be efficient enough for all of you 1 farad guys it's easy just make sure pos to pos and neg to neg and for goodness sake charge the thing before you use it. If you read up on this page somebody has already taken the time to explain the ohms law and how to blow up your battery so be careful.

Answer if it is a capacitor made for a car amp the have a circuit board on top so they will not instantly charge off the battery they will charge slowly till they are full on their own that's how they were designed.

Re; Answer 6. What on earth is "oxygen-free audio wire"? I have assembled a good deal of industrial electrical and electronic equipment over the years, much of it to tight quality-control specifications, and NEVER has that description appeared anywhere. And this is equipment needing better quality than in a hi-fi. Those peddling it have found a nifty way to charge over the odds for... plain, or perhaps tinned, copper wire. Yes, some copper is treated to remove any included oxygen but that is for heavy sheet and profile sections purely for welding, to prevent brittle welds: its electrical properties are not affected. It matters in some parts of an audio circuit that the leads are screened against interference, and the wire should be bright or tinned in connections because surface oxide will degrade the connection and may even introduce odd partial-rectification problems, but the notion that it has to be some magical "oxygen-free audio wire" is a myth and a con.

Careful not to exceed the Caps voltage rating. 1 farad caps typically are a low voltage device.

Car Electronics and Lights
Electronics Engineering

What are automotive diodes?

A: They are rectifiers to supply DC power to the engine and to lights, heater fan, and accessories.

ANSWER : NO just for the engine if it does not start no fan no accessory and definitely i could care less if they are there or not.

Car Electronics and Lights
Electronics Engineering

Signal conditioning circuit of potentiometer?

you can use an impedence converter or a voltage follower

Car Electronics and Lights
Chevy S-10
Turn Signals and Hazard Lights

Where is the location of turn signal flasher on a 2003 Chevy S10?

The 2003 Chevy S 10 pickup truck turn signal flasher relay switch can be found beneath the drivers side dashboard. The turn signal flasher relay switch will be between the gas pedal and the brake pedal.

Car Electronics and Lights
Meteorology and Weather
Electronics Engineering

Why FMCW radar has better range resolution than CW radar?

FM CW radar sweeps the Radio Frequency over time. Time in Radar equates to range and results in a high spectral density at every range. CW radar has a much lower spectral density and does not code range with frequency in the same way.

Car Electronics and Lights
Car Fuses and Wiring
Headlights Tail and Brake Lights
Turn Signals and Hazard Lights

How do you fix the problem of the brake lights and turn signals and emergency flashers not working when all fuses and bulbs are good?

The WD40 solutionI had the same problem on my 98 Grand Marquis. A Linclon Mercury mechanic told me the problem was most likely in the hazard flasher switch on top of the steering column. He recommended I spray WD 40 around the switch and push it down *and let it pop up several times and wiggle it around. It worked for me - problem solved. Apparently, over the years gunk finds it way in there, be it dirt, liquids, etc. Furthermore, he said there is no "flasher" you can replace as you may remember in older vehicles. Good luck. The rest or these posts are simply testimonials for the first answer
  • The WD-40 squirted in the emergency flasher switch worked in my 97 ford mustang. Thanks so much for the info.
  • Thanks for saving me the coins to pay a mechanic. I have a 97 Ford Van and the question fit my problem to the tee. The solution also fixed my problem.
  • My wife push the flasher and that started all the problems. I took your advise and it worked for me too on my 1995 Grand Marquis. Thanks for your imput.
  • I have a '99 Ford F-150 4.8 Liter V8, and this seems to have fixed the problem. It began as an intermittant problem and has gotten progressively worse over the past couple of months. I thought it was only affecting my turn signals, but I later discovered it also involved my brake lights. Moving the emergency flasher switch up and down a number of times solved the problem. Thank you!
  • This also worked for me I have a 1999 Ford Expedition. I moved the hazardous lights up and down and the problem was solved.
  • I thought I had checked the relevant fuses on my Ranger truck, but missed the one for brake-Emergency Flashers. My flashers were on - the button in the extended position when the fuse blew. Because the fuse went I didn't know the flasher was still in the on position. Therefore the turn signals and brake lights didn't work. It wasn't until I got the flasher in the off position that the turn signals started working again.
  • hey it worked for me too! i almost brought her in to the vultures till i found this. thanks!!!!
  • Worked on 1998 Lincon Continental...moved hazard warning switch in steering column up and down....worked great! THANKS!
  • The WD40 worked like a charm. I have been trying to fix this problem for 2 hours. I sprayed WD40 and problem solved. Thanks so much.
  • It works , don'ask me how , but it works.
  • Just used WD4O on the hazard switch of a 97 Aerostar whose blinkers have not worked for months. The switch now works freely, and the blinkers work, too.
  • I had a right front turn signal not working, sometimes. Then the left front stopped working, sometimes. Replaced lamps and still no joy. Tried the hazard flasher switch a few times and it started working but only sometimes. Sprayed WD40 into the hazard switch, exercised it a few times, and all OK now. Many thanks to the original poster.
  • Good Morning! Let me echo the repair of the WD40. I had the same symtems of turn signals, flashers not working. Checked all the fuses. Went to Auto Zone to seek advise, They called FORD for me (really nice guys here in Warren, Pa) Ford pointed them/me to a light processcor that costs in excess of $200. A dealer only part) Auto Zone then suggested for me to access the web and seek out like problems which I did. Thank you to the original poster of this issue and Auto Zone. Several squirts and I worked the switch...and presto...everything started working again! No cost at all to fix this prob. I already has the WD40!
  • It worked for me too on a 1997 Ford Thunderbird! Took me 2 days of checking things and not being able to use the care before I "Google'd" the problem. The Internet is great and so is your web site! You should have an option for people to pay something if you site helped them. This was worth at least $50 (and more if I would have taken it somewhere).
  • Thank you VERY MUCH !!! The WD-40 solution worked GREAT !!!!!!!!!!!
  • Thank you, worked for my 1997 F-150!
Car Electronics and Lights
Mitsubishi Lancer

How do you replace the headlight bulb on a 2007 Mitsubishi Lancer CE?

you must remove the inner fender well and the front facia, it poops right off, not too bad

Car Electronics and Lights
Home Electricity
Electronics Engineering

2.1 kv equals how many volts?

2,100 volts = 2.1 kv

Car Electronics and Lights

How do you bypass Clarion vrx486vd?

If by bypass you mean bypass the handbrake wire required to use the DVD player function or screen for av input then you will either have to connect it to your handbrake as directed or connect it to a switch that is earthed. then when you want to use it you have to flick the switch off, wait 1 second and flick it back on.

Car Electronics and Lights
Dodge Dakota

Does an 89 Dodge Dakota have a voltage regulator Where is it located?

The engine computer is the voltage regulator. Located on the inner fender.

Cars & Vehicles
Car Electronics and Lights
Dashboard Lights and Gauges
Ford Explorer Eddie Bauer

What are ABS EBD EPS in a car?

ABS: Antilock Brake System (or Anti-locking Brake System) - enables you to steer whilst keeping the brake pedal full on. Can be felt as a vibration through the pedal when it cuts in. Also useful in stopping in a straight line if one side is on slippery stuff and the other on grippy stuff (non-ABS will tend to spin). EBD: Electronic Brake Distribution (or Electronic Brake-force Distributor) - alters how much of the brake force goes to the front and how much to the rear. Cars always have more braking on front as if the rears lock before the front then the car will spin. How much braking you can do with the rears depends on how much weight is in the vehicle so EBD dynamically adjusts this balance. Without it, the manufacturer sets up the balance so the rears don't lock when the vehicle is empty which is less braking than is possible when the vehicle is full. EPS: Electronic Power Steering - enables the amount of assistance with steering to be varied depending on speed and how much you turn the wheel. This means it can give lots of boost when parking the car whilst still giving you a good feel for the road at speed. As this was asked along with ABS and EBD, I think it might actually be ESP which is asked about. ESP: Electronic Stability Program - senses when the car is about to go out of control and can apply an individual brake to a wheel to help avoid the spin. Will not totally prevent the spin but means that it takes more to lose control. Often also used to give traction control where brakes may be applied if a wheel begins to spin due to too much power for the grip. N.B. many cars have TCS (Traction Control System) without having ESP.

Car Electronics and Lights
Home Electricity
Household Hints

How do you get cover of dome ceiling light fixture to change light bulb?

It depends on the fixture. I have 4 types. One has screws on the outside of the metal frame, so you unscrew those and hold the glass bowl. Another has two big metal clips INSIDE the glass bowl. I have to be brave and just pull to one side until the first side unclips - putting it back on is more nerve wracking! Another has a metal pole coming through the center of the dome. Hold on to the glass, but pull the metal piece a bit to one side and then unscrew it. The final one almost stumped me - an electrician purchased it and installed it this winter and I never thought about changing the bulb! There is no metal pole, no screws, just the frame and the dome. You have to TWIST the glass counterclockwise and it unscrews (there are three metal bumps on the INSIDE that hold it when you screw it back. hope this helps!

And I found a fifth: Hold metal frame and pull down on glass fixture. One side started coming out giving me confidence to pull more. I finally removed the glass and found three Spring Clips that hold the glass fixture. I strongly suggest that this is the last method you consider.

Car Electronics and Lights
Chevy Blazer
Chevy Blazer S-10
Ford Bronco Eddie Bauer

How do you know if the fusible link is fried?

check out this link

the easiest way to test your idea is to get two pieces of wire and put a fuse between them so that the fuse will take the load if there is a problem ,then check the link you suspect to be faulty first put one end of the made up wire where the link gets its power then put the other end of the madeup wire to where ever the power should be going by doing this you will bypass the fusable link as for now it will be supplied power from the new made up wire if the item works its the link if it makes no difference this is not the problem area good luck

Usualy a fuseable link that is fried will feel hard and not flexable. A continuty tester is the best way of testing it. Get a dvm volt meter.

Measure it with a meter. It is the only way to tell for sure.

good now for a quick check ...pull some in the fuseable link with your two fingers....if it streches it's shot...if it breacks looose it was making a bad connection and is bad any way....this is as quick of a test when you have just your brains to figure how to check circuits and parts. note. now what do you use to replace a fuseable link when you don't have one availaible? i know lets see if anyone else knows......

Car Electronics and Lights
Chevy Astro
Jeep Cherokee Laredo
1995-2005 Chevy Cavaliers

Why would your lights and horn not shut off?

Have you checked for a relay that might have been damaged when the fuse blew? With an overcurrent, it is possible for the relay to pick up and then become 'welded' so it will not release. If you find the relay and remove the cover, the contacter should move when you apply a little pressure to it. If this doesn't happen, replace the relay. Much harder to check would be if insulation melted during the overcurrent and fused power to a horn and light wire. Relay for sure.

Car Electronics and Lights
Electronics Engineering
Electrical Wiring

What is a ganged potentiometer?

A ganged potentiometer is two or more variable resistors of the same or sometimes different value, ganged together on one adjusting shaft, normally used on stereo systems as a volume control so that one can vary the volume of both channels at the same time. They are commercially available with from two to four sections. Clarostat used to make a ganged stackable system where you could add as many sections as you wanted. I'm not sure if it's available anymore. Ganged pots are also used for tone controls, pan controls, as well as in power supplies and other electronic lab equipment.

Cars & Vehicles
Car Electronics and Lights
Car Starting Problems
Ford Ranger

Is there anything wrong with turning on the headlights before starting the car?


I can't say anything is wrong with having the head lights on when starting the car. However I personally don't recommend having the headlights on when starting the car because you're putting a huge load on your battery and drawing current from many related engine components that are needed when you start your car. Many cars headlights will automatically come on when the engine is started but I would hope and think that these cars have some sort of delay that wont allow the headlights to pull a load from the battery until the engine is running. In fact I own a 2002 Blazer and when it is dark if you turn the ignition on the headlights will come on and when you turn the key to start it the headlights seem to drop out momentarily until the engine starts. I would think that the Blazer is designed for this then again to know for sure I would have to call or consult a pro.


As long as you have a good battery and turning your lights on don't affect the starting of your car then it won't cause any problems,


There is absoultly nothing wrong with turning on the head lights before u start the car because on a cold morning say 10 - 15 below this actually warms up the battery by putting a load on the battery and causing a chemical reaction that warms up the battey and thus allowing the battery the ability to start the car more effectivly. note: the battery must be sufficient for the car or it will not work find out how many amps your starter pulls and get the battery that pulls twice the amperage or cca(cold cranking amps) thisis displayed on the top of the battery labeled either ca or cca (cranking amps or cold cranking amps.)

Gee, I have been servicing cars for about 40 years and never heard that turning the headlights on when the temperature outside warms up the battery. When you are starting your car in extremely low temperatures, you want as much battery power as you can get to go to the starter. Headlamps draw the most current , besides the starter, in a car. Leave the headlamps on at 20 below for 1 hour and you will have a dead battery. Leave the lights off and everything else until the car starts,,,after a few seconds when the engine is running turn things on EXCEPT the lights until you are going to drive. Any charging from the alternator will be used to power the lights and the battery will not recover from the start correctly.

Car Electronics and Lights
Dodge Caravan
Dodge Grand Caravan

Where is the color code on a 2002 Dodge Caravan?

The color code is usually located on the same sticker that contains information about your tire pressure and other info. This sticker is usually located where the latch is on the front driver-side door or even on the B pillar. The color code is kind of hard to decipher. My car is Dk.Green, but my color code is BJ2. Go Figure...

paint codes on Chrysler and dodge is located either on a sticker in the driver's door jam or on a metal plate under the hood. It is a 3 diget code(pw7,ph2, etc.) You will need a paint chip book to verify color. can be found where car paint is sold

Car Electronics and Lights

How can you test a MAF module?

If you do not have an OBD-II tester, and are not familiar with meter's, then simply disconnect the electrical connection at the MAF sensor. If car runs worse, it is probably the sensor. If no change, the problem exists somewhere else. The sensor is located in the air intake duct. Note: The Mass Air Flow element is a sensor, not a module. various sensors throughout the car's Emissions system send singles to the PCM (Power Control Module), which in turn controls proper engine performance. most sensors are basically like an on and off switch....

Car Electronics and Lights
Fuel Pumps
Ford Bronco II
Ford F-150

Where will you find a synerject fuel pump?

See Synerject's website at for more information and/or contact details.

Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
Car Electronics and Lights

Tom Tom GPS receiver 4A01 900 Wiring Diagram?

From the back of the rj11 plug, it is R, B, O, E

Car Electronics and Lights
Car Stereos and Speakers
MP3 Players Audio and Sound Systems

If a speaker is 400 watts RMS should you use a 400 watt amp?

The selection of an amplifier size is not obvious and most sound engineers will agree that an amplifier with the same output rating as the speaker rating is not a good choice. Here's why:

Speakers can take quite a lot of abuse. They can cope with signals that are distorted as long as they are low levels. They can cope with being over driven as long as the signal is clean. What they really don't like is a distorted signal when it is at full power. Signals that are distorted because the amplifier is clipping the top and bottom of the waveforms are some of the worst distortions that a speaker can suffer. Amplifiers produce exactly this kind of distortion when they are driven beyond their power rating.

If the amplifier output is the same rating as the speaker input rating, this clipping will occur when the amplifier has reached its maximum output which is also the maximum power that the speaker can handle. This delivers the distortion when the speaker is least able to handle it.

If the amplifier is much smaller than the maximum speaker power, the distortion tends not to be damaging even though it sounds unpleasant. If the amplifier can output more power than the speaker is rated to handle, you will start to hear unpleasant sounds from the speaker but normally the speaker sill not be damaged in this situation. In either case, a sensible operator will reduce the drive to the speaker and both amp and speaker are happy again.

Generally a professionally designed sound system will use amplifiers that are substantially larger than the speakers' rating. That allows the speakers to be driven to capacity without a danger of the amplifiers being over driven. A 400W speaker will often be driven by an amplifier with a rating of 600W - 800W.

In addition, most big systems will employ a speaker controller of some sort. These devices monitor signal levels and prevent the amplifier over driving a speaker. Although they provide a good protection system, they need to be set up manually so demand a significant amount of knowledge to be used effectively. In a commercial environment, speakers controllers are often locked away from all tampering fingers to prevent the setting being adjusted.

Car Electronics and Lights
Ford Vans
Turn Signals and Hazard Lights

How do you fix ford econoline turn signal?

If all are out it may be flasher, fuse, bulbs socket, or switch in column

Car Electronics and Lights
Car Stereos and Speakers

Is mtx magnum better than mtx terminator?

MTX is mostly all the same. except for there jackhammer equipment

Car Electronics and Lights
Toyota Tacoma
Turn Signals and Hazard Lights

Where is the flasher?

You would normally find it under the dash near the steering column. It is not in the fuse panel. It's left of the ashtray. Turn on the hazards and listen, the turn signal and 4 way flashers are side by side. You don't say what kind of vehicle you have, but if you are looking for a stand-alone flasher unit on late model Ford, Mercury, and Lincoln vehicles, you won't find it. It is incorporated within the hazard flasher swith, located on top of the steering column. This is a multi-function switch that controls turn signals, brake lights, and emergency flashers. If these lights are not working, a quick fix is to spray WD 40 around the switch. Then push it down with your thumb and let it pop up several times and also wiggle it around a bit.

Car Electronics and Lights
Car Stereos and Speakers
MP3 Players Audio and Sound Systems

How much watts are baja sub woofers?

200 watts

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