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Cell Metabolism

We all use energy to survive. Metabolism is the total of all the chemical reactions an organism needs to survive, either plant or animal. Photosynthesis and glycolysis are necessary to life. These are intertwined with each other. There are a number of cycles involved, the basic one is the carbon cycle. There are also smaller cycles within the larger cycle.

861 Questions

Can spicy soup increase metabolism?

Studies show that spicy food's do speed up your metabolism

In which organelles does lipid metabolism occurs?

Lipid metabolism takes place in Mitochondria , SER. and in lipid rich plant seedling in glyoxisomes .

What is the Role of Vitamins in Metabolism?

cells need vitamins to use energy. They are used as the building blocks of other cell parts and with enzyms for chemical processess "Food is of no use to our body until we have allowed the cells of our body to convert the food energy (organic energy) into chemical energy through respiration. Cell respiration is when organic material (the food we eat) is converted into chemical energy within the cells to provide the energy we use to perform our everyday activities. Chemical energy is stored within the bonds between carbon and hydrogen. Every time a bond is broken energy is released due to the exothermic reaction that takes place, that is, energy is given to the body. Glucose is a good energy store because of the six carbon-hydrogen bonds. However, the main source of energy is one that is produced within our body. It is the universal energy carrier, ATP, formally known as adenosine triphosphate". Digestion is a complex process. The cells that line the digestive tract secrete into the lumen of the gut a variety of substances, such as hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes, to break down food molecules into simpler nutrients. The cells absorb these nutrients from the gut lumen, process them, and then release them into the blood for utilization by other cells of the body. All of these activities are adjusted according to the composition of the food consumed and the levels of metabolites in the circulation. The first step in the metabolism of digestible carbohydrate is the conversion of the higher polymers to simpler, soluble forms that can be transported across the intestinal wall and delivered to the tissues. The breakdown of sugars begins in the mouth. Saliva is slightly acidic and contains lingual amylase that begins the digestion of carbohydrates. Once the food has arrived in the stomach, acid hydrolysis contributes to its degradation; specific gastric proteases and lipases aid this process for proteins and fats, respectively. The mixture of gastric secretions, saliva, and food, known collectively as chyme, moves to the small intestine. The resultant glucose and other simple carbohydrates are transported across the intestinal wall to the hepatic portal vein and then to parenchymal liver cells and other tissues. There they are converted to fatty acids, amino acids, and glycogen, or else oxidized by the various catabolic pathways of cells. Most of these pathways are in the mitochondria, whose outer membrane forms an aqueous channel through which proteins up to 10,000 daltons can pass and go into the intermembrane space. The average person's body contains enough glycogen to provide energy for 6-12 hours. In contrast to this, it contains enough fat to provide energy for up to 40 days. An adult man produces enough heat every day during the metabolism of energy, to boil almost 40l of water Energy is also required to enable these digestive and metabolic processes. Between 5% and 10% of the energy that is available in the body is required for metabolising food. Various factors play a role in the generation, storage and utilisation of energy, and include the body's surface-area, age, gender, thyroid hormones, dopamine, serotonin, adrenaline, body temperature and women's menstrual cycle

2 MAJOR PATHWAYS OF ENERGY METABOLISM Glucose is oxidised by all tissues to synthesise ATP. The first pathway which begins the complete oxidation of glucose is called glycolysis. The normal pathways are briefly described 1 Glycolysis 2 Gluconeogenesis 3 The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex 4 The Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) 5 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation 6 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway 7 Beta-Oxidation of Fatty Acids (With permission from Theo Verwey from his book - NAD Therapy too good to be True- http://www.nutrimalaika.net)

Where does the energy come from that drives cell metabolism?

Plants and some algae get their energy from the Sun. Most other living beings (including us humans) get their energy from plants. Energy is stored as chemical energy, which we use. Plants use chemical energy, too, as energy storage.

Plants and some algae get their energy from the Sun. Most other living beings (including us humans) get their energy from plants. Energy is stored as chemical energy, which we use. Plants use chemical energy, too, as energy storage.

Plants and some algae get their energy from the Sun. Most other living beings (including us humans) get their energy from plants. Energy is stored as chemical energy, which we use. Plants use chemical energy, too, as energy storage.

Plants and some algae get their energy from the Sun. Most other living beings (including us humans) get their energy from plants. Energy is stored as chemical energy, which we use. Plants use chemical energy, too, as energy storage.

What statement best describes the function of a competitive inhibitor in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?

Competitive inhibitor is a substance that competes directly with a normal substrate for an enzymatic-binding site of an enzyme. Such an inhibitor usually resembles the substrate to the extent that it specifically binds to the active site of the enzyme but differs from it so as to be unreactive and therefore there will be no catalytic reaction. Some examples are: methotrexate that is competitive inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, and malonate which structurally resembles succinate (that is converted to fumarate by succinate dehydrogenase during the citric acid cycle) but cannot be dehydrogenated.

How does the body use protein when there are not enough carbohydrates or fats in the diet?

This is similar to a starvation period. In fact, glucose is the main metabolite of both brain and muscle. The body stores less than a day's supply of carbohydrate, thus, the less blood sugar resulting from even an overnight fast results, through an increase in glucagon secretion and a decrease of insulin secreted into blood current. With this events, fatty acids are movilized from adipose tissue and glucose uptake by muscle tissue is inhibited by insulin levels. Therefore, muscles switch from glucose to fatty acid metabolism for energy production. However, the brain remains heavily dependent on glucose.

In animal metabolism, glucose cannot be sinthesized from fatty acids, because neither pyruvate nor oxalacetate, the precursors of glucose in gluconeogenesis pathway, can be sinthesized from acetyl-CoA . During starvation, glucose therefore must be sinthesized from the glycerol product of triacylglycerol breakdown and, more importantly, from the amino acids derived from the proteolytic degradation of proteins mainly from muscles. The continued breakdown of muscle proteins during long starvation periods would ensure that this process became irreversible since a large muscle mass is essential for an animal to move about in search of food.

How do cells that exist 6 cm below the skin's surface receive their nutrients from outside the body?

They don't receive nutrients from outside the body but from very small capillaries or even by simple diffusion if they are rather close to the skin.

Importance of ATP in intracellular metabolism?

ATP is considered as the energy currency of cell or life. It store high energy needed to carry out bodily process such as metabolism of biomolecules, synthesis of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates., muscle contraction, transport of molecules across the cell membrane and so on. ATP is presenting in nucleus and cytoplasm of every single cell.

What vitamins and minerals boost metabolism?

* If you are looking to boost your metabolism I would have to say Vitamin D, or Magnesium Citrate * Try 1800 mg of Fish Oil. Studies have shown that it may help you lose weight faster. * Try Co-Enzyme Q10, Magnesium Citrate Powder, and B-complex to help boost metabolism. Also, take a daily multi vitamin and mineral supplement capsule from a specialist supplier. * Add exercise and healthy eating. Vitamins and minerals alone cannot counter bad eating habits and lack of exercise. * For information about specific exercises and foods that speed up metabolism, see the page link, further down this page, listed under "Related Links."

How is ATP important to cell metabolism?

ATP is important to the cell because it provides the energy it needs for all its functions.

What happens to ATP during Metabolism?

it is broken down to fuel chemical reactions & is created by chemical reactions.

The role of ATP in cell metabolism?

Glucose is the most important cellular fuel, but none of the chemical energy contained in its bonds is used directly to power cellular work. Energy released during glucose catabolism is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. Cells tap ATP's bond energy during coupled reactions by using enzymes to transfer the terminal phosphate groups from ATP to other compounds. These newly phosphorylated molecules are said to be "primed" and temporarily become more energetic.

In the process of doing their work, they lose the phosphate group. As a result, cells are protected by excessive energy release that might be damaging, and energy squandering is kept to a minimum.

What is glucose converted to during anaerobic metabolism?

As a result of anaerobic metabolism in cells, glucose is converted in the cytoplasm to lactic acid without employing the electron transport change.