Chromosomes contain the genetic material DNA

8,223 Questions

How many chromosomes do humans have?

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes; 46 chromosomes in all, 23 from the father and 23 from the mother.
A normal human being has 23 chromosomes from each parent, giving them 23 pairs or 46 in total. It is called Haploid.

What is a gene?

GeneThe central dogma of genetics was that one gene coded for one enzyme this was later altered to one gene coded for one polypeptide.

As we learn more about genetics, this begins to look like an overly simplistic view of the concept of gene. The exact definition of the term gene is in debate at the moment, as is the use of the term at all in the future. The discovery of very short RNA's (miRNA, siRNA's) which influence gene expression (without translation into peptides) are part of this debate.


A gene is a unit of heredity in a living organism. It is normally a stretch of DNA that codes

for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. All proteins and functional RNA chains are specified by genes. All living things depend on genes. Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. A gene is a unit of in a living organism. It is normally a stretch of DNA that codes for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism.

Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. A gene is a part of a DNA molecule that codes for a particular trait of an organism. It provides instructions on how to make a polypeptide. For example, one gene may code for the production of tyrosinase, which is an enzyme (protein) used in the synthesis of melanin (a pigment responsible for dark colors in skin and fur).

By the traditional definition, a gene is 'transcribed' into mRNA which is then 'translated' into a protein, which will produce the desired effect in an organism's cell. Some genes may contain instructions for the production of RNA that is not translated into a protein, such as tRNA, rRNA, miRNA and siRNA.


In essence, a gene is a section of a DNA molecule that has a unique and specific biological function.

Is google chromosome an internet provider?

No it is a web browser which allows you to veiw web pages through an internet provider such as comcast, att, verison ect.

What does the chromosome of a bacterium do?

The chromosome of a bacterium does essentially the same thing that chromosomes do for all life forms. It describes the formation of proteins for the organism, allowing it to produce and grow the proper structures at the proper time, allowing it to survive most efficiently.

How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?

There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the cell, or 46 total. 1 pair of them are sex chromosomes and the rest are called autosomes. There are 50-75 trillion cells in the human body. That means there are about 1,550,000,000,000,000- 1,725,000,000,000,000 pairs of chromosomes in the human body.

The sex chromosomes in human, denoted X and Y, are only truly a pair in females (XX). So some people consider humans to all have 22 pairs chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes.

What are chromosomes?

Basically is genetic info.

Different organisms have different types of chromosomes.

In bacteria (prokaryotic cells) a chromosome consists of a loop of DNA; it has no end. Along the length of the DNA are segments called genes, which contain information that the cell uses for growth and development. Most bacteria have only one chromosome, but some have more (the cholera organism Vibrio cholerae has two).

In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are linear (they have two ends). The DNA is associated with proteins called histones. There is always more than one chromosome in a eukaryotic cell. After cell division and before DNA replication, there is only one molecule of DNA in each chromosome. After DNA replication, there are two DNA molecules in each chromosome; these are separated at the next cell division. In higher organisms, including humans, genes make up only part of the DNA. * * *

A chromosome is a single large macromolecule of DNA, and constitutes a physically organized form of DNA in a cell. It is a very long, continuous piece of DNA. * * * A chromosome refers to the colored thread observed localized within the nucleus. It is the genetic information carrier, and it may be extended (in interphase) or highly condensed (during mitosis or meiosis). The number of chromosomes is species-specific and if any alteration occurs it leads to disease condition or move forward towards evolution. In humans the total number of chromosomes is 46 or 23 pairs; mouse has 44 or 22 pairs; Onion - 16 or 8 pairs; Drosophila - 8 or 4 pairs. A chromosome after DNA replication has a pair of threads called chromatids held together by a primary constriction called a centromere. Chromatids consists of supersolenoid and scaffold structure followed by solenoid structure. Solenoid structure is formed by compaction of polynucleotides bound by histones and non-histone proteins. It leads to a fundamental structure called a nucleosome which consists of a nucleic acid part and a protein part. The protein part consists of positively-charged histones rich in lysine, arginine, and glycine. Histones consists of core subunit made of octamer made of 2 copies of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Linker histone H1 connects 2 nucleosomes. Chromosomes are classified based on various criteria: 1) The chromosomes which are common to both males and females are referred to as autosomes or body chromosomes and the chromosomes which determine the sex of an organism are called sex chromosome or allosomes (look dissimilar). In humans we have 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes). 2) Classified based on the position of centromere or primary constriction. The either sides of the centromere is referred to as arms (p- petite or short arm; q - quadran or long arm). When p=q (V shaped) - metacentric chromosome; When p<=q (L shaped) - submetacentric chromosome;When p<<< 3) Chromosomes are classified based on the banding pattern. Human chromosomes are classified into 7 groups A - G. A - 1-3; B - 4,5; C - 6-12, X; D - 13-15; E - 16 - 18; F - 19, 20; G - 21, 22, Y. Humans do not have any telocentric chromosomes. He has 5 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes (13 - 15, 21,22).
Chromosomes are structures composed of DNA coiled tightly around proteins called histones. In eukaryotic cells chromosomes are located in the cell nucleus. Chromosomes control the cell's activities and heredity.

Job of chromosomes?

Transfer DNA information from parents to offspring, and hold DNA information.

What is the chromosome theory of inheritance?

(Was it really necessary to answer eleven times?) Chromosome theory is a principle of genetics. Known as the chromosome theory of inheritance, the principle is that all chromosomes are carriers of genetic material that pass from one generation to the next.

The theory of inheritance was proposed independently by WALTER SUTTON and THEODORE BOVERI

i) Since the sperm and egg cells provides the only bridge from one generation to another, all hereditary characters must be carried in them

ii) The hereditary factors are carried in the nucleus

iii) Like the Mendelian alleles , chromosomes are also found in pairs.

How many pairs of chromosomes are there in a human cell?

There are 23 pairs or 46 individual chromosomes in a humans cells. 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes in normal humans. (There are disorders such as Turners syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome that result in different numbers of chromosomes.)

What is a chromosome?

A chromosome is a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order. It is also known as tightly wound DNA. It is a structure that DNA wraps around.


A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.

Chromosomes vary widely between different organisms. The DNA molecule may be circular or linear, and can be composed of 10,000 to 1,000,000,000 nucleotides in a long chain.

Cells may contain more than one type of chromosome; for example, mitochondria in most eukaryotes and chloroplasts in plants have their own small chromosomes.

Chromosomes are the essential unit for cellular division and must be replicated, divided, and passed successfully to their daughter cells so as to ensure the genetic diversity and survival of their progeny.

Chromosomal recombination plays a vital role in genetic diversity. If these structures are manipulated incorrectly, through processes known as chromosomal instability and translocation, the cell may undergo mitotic catastrophe and die, or it may aberrantly evade apoptosis leading to the progression of cancer.

In practice "chromosome" is a rather loosely defined term. In prokaryotes and viruses, the term genophore is more appropriate when no chromatin is present. However, a large body of work uses the term chromosome regardless of chromatin content. The simplest genophores are found in viruses: these DNA or RNA molecules are short linear or circular genophores that often lack structural proteins.

Chromosomal DNA encodes most or all of an organism's genetic information; some species also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal genetic elements.
Structure in nucleus made of DNA and protein. Sections of a chromosomes are genes.
structure in a cell's nucleuse thaat contians genetic material
A chromeosome is organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells.
coiled strands of genetic material
coiled strands of genetic material

What phase does the chromosome become invisible?

In the cell cycle the chromosomes become invisible again (turn into chromatin) at the end of telophase in mitosis, But they are also invisible for the entirety of cytokinesis and interphase

What is the center of a chromosome called?

The center of a chromosome is a centromere.

What is the chromosome number of a fertilized egg?

The chromosome number of a fertilized egg will always be calculated by the formula 2n. n signifies the haploid number, and 2n is the diploid number. The number of chromosomes in a human gamete is zygote- originating from the haploid number 23 in the gamete.
This depends on the species of the egg.

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total), so a fertilized human egg should have 46 chromosomes.
If you are talking about a human, then there are 40 chromosomes.
23 pairs like any one else
46 Chromosones
That depends on the animal.

In humans there are a combined total of 46.

However some animals have more or less.
There are two because if it starts off with one (X) when it get fertilised by either X or Y its twoo. eg XX or XY
It depends on the creature in question.

What are the differences between chromatin and chromosomes?

Chromatin and chromosomes are basically the same thing. The difference is that chromatin is unfolded, uncondensed, extended DNA while chromosomes are condensed DNA. Chromosomes are condensed chromatin and chromatin is unfolded chromosomes.

The only difference I know is that chromatin are present normally in a cell, while chromosomes are there only when the cell is about to divide. When the cell is about to divide, the chromatin threads get organised into chromosomes.

Utilizing their histone proteins to accomplish this, DNA first condenses into 10 nm strands and then into 30 nm strands, ready for Condensation and then Cytokinesis.

What is the difference between DNA gene and chromosome?

The following earlier provided answer, I believe, is wrong:

"A gene is not a single structure or thing. It is made up of the micro-structures that determine a trait. These micro-structures are primarily chromosomes. Chromosomes are pieces of DNA. A single strand of DNA stretched out would be about 3 feet long. A common analogy is that DNA is like the strands of a necklace and the chromosomes are the beads. There are two strands of DNA that intertwine forming a pattern called the "Double Helix"

basically, a gene is part of a chromosome. which all falls underneath DNA"

To my understanding, a chromosome consists of a single DNA string (up to 2 meters long if unfolded) that is tightly curled up around many protein molecules (histone) and around itself (much like old telephone wires after years of use). The resulting bundle is called a chromosome.

A Gene is a particular section of the chromosome's DNA string. There are many such sections on the DNA string - thus it contains (also calls 'codes') many genes - in humans between 500 and 4500 depending on what chromosome. One gene contains information for producing one particular protein. It is the sequence of bases (T, C, G or A) in the DNA gene section that defines which protein.

The beginning and end of a gene section is marked by a start and a stop sequence ( also called codons) of a gene. In DNA the start can typically be the base sequence ATG and the stop sequence typically TAA, TGA or TAG.

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each chromosome has a different DNA string. Thus some times you see people wrinting that a chromosome is only a part of a person's DNA. By that, they mean all the DNA in the body - whcih of course is true, since you have 23 different pairs of chromosomes. But that should not be misunderstood as "a chromosome is part of a DNA string" as frequently seen on the net.
Genes are to be found on Chromosomes.

And Chromosomes are singular pieces of DNA, which contain many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences.

How many chromosomes does a zygote have?

If it is a human zygote with no mutations, then it will contain 46 chromosomes. Each parent gives the zygote 23 chromosomes. All human gametes without mutations contain 23 and when joined during fertilization they form a zygote with 46 chromosomes. However, chromosome number varies by species, for example a normal pigeon zygote would have 80 chromosomes. All zygotes have their adult number of chromosomes, once again assuming there are not mutations. See the related links for a list of the adult and thus the zygote number of chromosomes.

Is a chromosome highly coiled?

yes it is

DNA is coiled around histones to make a "10nm string." This is then further compacted in a either a solenoid or zig zag fashion to form a "30nm string." This is then further compacted, eventually leading to chromosomes.

How many forms of a gene can an individual normally carry?

Normally a gene may be either dominant or recessive, depending on the circumstances co-dominant and incomplete dominant genes are also seen in many individuals.