Conditions and Diseases

Conditions and Diseases include everything from aches and pains to broken bones, chronic conditions to life-threatening diseases, symptoms and possible causes, and much more. Questions range from what causes hair to turn grey, possible causes of pains, origins of viruses, and anything to do with conditions and diseases associated with health.

Asked in Conditions and Diseases

What are the signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases?

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An individual infected with an STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease) might not display symptoms of infection. Also, symptoms vary greatly, depending on the STD. Even some serious infections, like hepatitis and HIV might never show outward signs pointing to the primary infection. Some STDs have no external symptoms. Some have a long incubation period during which, no external symptoms appear. Others can appear dormant after a brief symptomatic period. Caution: Because of the broad range of symptoms, or lack of apparent symptoms, You need to visit a physician immediately if you believe that you are at risk of an STD infection. Don't wait! Some Signs of STDs: STDs can be any of a number of possibilities, all with differing symptoms which may include any of the following:Painful, burning urination; Painful, burning urination; Lower abdominal pain; Vaginal discharge; Penile discharge; Painful sexual intercourse; Testicular pain; Sores (ulcerations or cankers), or warts in genital areas; Rash (Itching and redness) in genital areas; Anal itching, soreness, tenderness, or bleeding. Related information: Every year, STDs affect more than 13 million people. Researchers have identified more than 20 different kinds of STDs, which fall into two main groups: bacterial and viral. Bacterial STDs: These can be treated, and often cured, with antibiotics. Some examples are: Chlamydia; gonorrhea; Trichomoniasis; and syphilis; Viral STDs: These diseases can be controlled, but not cured. Some examples are: Genital herpes; Genital warts; Human papilloma virus (HPV); Hepatitis B; Cytomegalovirus; HIV or AIDS. To Minimizing Risk: Use condoms for vaginal, oral, or anal sex -every time; Know your partners, STD and general health, status; Avoid multiple sexual partners; Have regular medical check-ups. To Eliminate Risk: Avoid the sharing of needles; Avoid sexual contact; Avoid any contact with the bodily fluids of others.
Asked in Health, Conditions and Diseases, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Sinus Infections

What causes bumps on the back of your tongue?

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The bumps on the back of your tongue would be called your taste buds. The vallate papillae are a v-shaped row of larger taste buds at the back of your tongue. Many people don't notice these until they have a concern about oral infection and take a good look in their throat, not realizing that these prominent bumps have always been there. Take a look at the related link to see if these vallate papillae are what you're concerned about. And, whatever you're seeing, make an appointment with your health care provider for screening if you have reason to be concerned about oral infections. The normal tongue has numerous taste buds which are necessary for appreciation of taste. Those at the back are relatively larger and form prominences. These bumps are caused by underlying taste buds. how do you know for sure that they are inflammed taste buds? Couldn't it be warts on the back of the tongue? no, you could have inflammed taste buds--see a doctor for diagnosis good luck If you are talking about the big ones in a line on the back of your tongue They belong there. They are part of you taste buds, leave them alone It's possible but unlikely. Why are you chewing marijuana? Oh, you smoked it? Perhaps smoking is irritating your toungue. If it happens again, quit smoking. Pot can cause all sorts of problems, the irritation from the smoke could cause this sort of symptom. It is however, important to know that your tongue has natural bumps in the back which are larger than the bumps in the front, even though they are in fact taste buds. If you were smoking with other people you could have caught something from them... maybe strep or mono who knows... if you're worried about it go to the doctor 1 you don't necesarily have to tell him you smoked and 2 he will have to keep it confidential if you do. There is a condition called Benign Migratory Glossitis that can cause reddish bumps. Usually harmless, if it lasts for more than 10 days or so, see your doctor or dentist. Those Bumps on your tongue are called taste buds. Red bumps on the back of the tongue can be numerous things. Tastebuds tend to get larger towards the back of the tongue so this may be the case. I've had that happen to me when I ate some really hot food. If you've had penicillin lately and have red blotches on your abdomen that would appear to be an allergic reaction causing the red bumps. Sometimes doctors will prescribe a Tetracycline mouth rinse. Tetracycline is an antibiotic which would indicate the bumps are caused by bacteria. So this would be useless if you have swollen or aggravated taste buds. The best thing to do is to go see a doctor who can actually see the bumps and run tests. if you have big red bumps on the back of your tongue its an allergic reaction Sores on the tongue I believe these red bumps on the back of your tongue could possibly be either canker sores or, if you are sick with the flu, signs that you may have strep throat. Also if you recently burned yourself while drinking something too hot for your tastebuds it could have caused this. Explanations from other WikiAnswers Contributors: They could be taste buds Circumvallate papillae would be the proper name. In Chinese Medicine, red bumps on the back of the tongue may mean Kidney issues. If the bumps are big and elevated, that may be excess stress (Kidney Yang excess), which can affect sleep, mood (anxiety), and immune system. If you don't have pain or visible infection, Western Medicine may call this "normal". It's possible. See the related questions link.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, ADD-ADHD, Symptoms

What are the symptoms of ADD?

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Often fidgeting with hands or feet, or squirming while seated. Having difficulty remaining seated. Having difficulty awaiting turn in games or group activities. Often blurting out answers before questions are completed. Having difficulty in following instructions. Having difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. Often shifting from one uncompleted task to another. Having difficulty playing quietly. Often talking excessively. Often interrupting or intruding on others. Often not listening to what is being said. Often forgetting things necessary for tasks or activities. Often engaging in physically dangerous activities without considering possible consequences. Being easily distracted by extraneous stimuli. Often fails to give close attention to details. Often makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. Often becomes easily distracted by irrelevant sights, sounds and extraneous stimuli. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities. Often avoids tasks, such as schoolwork or homework, that require sustained mental effort. Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities, like school assignments, pencils, books, or tools. Often is forgetful in daily activities. Rarely follows instructions carefully and completely. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. Attention Deficit Disorder, or ADD, is hard to define due to the fact it encompasses so many differing symptoms. The common traits are usually difficulty to pay attention due to being distracted easily, forgetfulness, inability to process future implications of actions and low or underweight, lean bodies. In some cases, though, instead of distractions being harder to avoid, people will hyperfocus, or not be aware of anything at all but what they are doing, and oftentimes obsess when making conversation. Many cases are in between. The problem falls in the fact that it encompasses such a wide range, there are intermediate cases and unique cases. A link between add and children's depression is theorized due to medications that treat add sometimes causing depression. It also goes the other way around. , and for more information try finding a good psychologist or psychiatrist and ask if you think you may have it. ADD is when you cant focus and you don't pay attention all the time when you are suppose to. your mind wanders all the time and you can hardly sit still. you space out a lot more then normal and you have a hard time keeping friends. Impatiences also is very common. Here are people answering and sharing their experiences about ADD: I always had a hard time keeping my house clean and organized. I was always cleaning but not getting much done. You know, cleaning in one room and having to go to another room for something and then start cleaning in there...etc...etc...before you know it, not much of anything is done. One day I just said forget it. The messier it got, the more depressed I got and was totally unable to do any cleaning because of the disorganization. I found that if you have ADD, its best to rid of all clutter and I mean all. It makes a world of difference. I told my mom about this, about how it's hard for me to clean because it's so "confusing" and she laughed. She can laugh all she wants cause she has it too, but won't admit to it. My dad used to ask me if I was doing drugs, which I wasn't. I will turn on the news to watch the weather only to find myself watching the sports since I had "taken a mind trip" for about 15 minutes. This happens quite frequently. I can even think about the fact that I may do this when I turn on the news so I try to pay attention and It still happens. It's crazy! I make lists for everything too but can't find them most of the time. For years I purchased over the counter ephedrine at the gas stations. This made me feel as normal as possible. I didn't know that I had ADD but I knew that I was different from most others and often have a hard time keeping friends, boyfriends, jobs or anything else for that matter...loosing lots of stuff. When I get on the Internet all holiness breaks loose cause I can have 20 screens open at a time, going from one topic to another, jotting down notes incessantly. I really thought I was crazy until I was diagnosed. I was 39 when diagnosed. My daughter has been diagnosed as well. She is 16 and I'm so glad that she won't have to go thru her life thinking she is "less than" because of this condition. I recommend this website: Medical Information. Lots of information here, including symptoms, a screener, etc. Also search for "ADHD" at these other sites: Mayo Clinic and Merck. Frustration, frustration and more frustration! I can't seem to finish anything. Even if I make a list to remind myself I lose the list or forget to take it to the store. I have ideas racing through my head and I am very ambitious, but never accomplish much. I then get depressed and feel hopeless. Hyper-focus: ADD is less a deficiency of attention than the inability to regulate one's attention mechanism. This is discussed in the book "Driven to Distraction", which I read per my doctor's recommendation. The book describes one almost contradictory symptom of ADD called hyper-focus. It is when one focuses on some task or item of interest to the degree of forgetting everything else going on. It tends to be a very enjoyable state of mind, losing yourself in some enjoyable activity so to speak. The ability to hyper-focus (without stimulant medications) is one of the distinguishing traits of ADD or ADHD. Typically this symptom is present in most people with ADD, myself included. The problem is it tends to occur at random or at least with little conscious control. Whereas having the ability to switch this on and off at will would make for much less of the disaster area (speaking for myself only) that ADHD causes.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Cold and Flu, Infectious Diseases, Immune System

Why do you get Muscle ache with flu?

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Muscle aches caused by a flu virus cannot be accounted for by fluid loss from excretions and emesis alone, because often muscle aches are the first sign of the flu, long before vomiting or diarrhea may ever occur (and they do not occur in most flu infected folk). Instead, it is the increasing body temperature (the fever that is one of the body's most effective responses for killing off heat-susceptible invaders) that causes an increase in water usage at the cellular level. Full body dehydration then almost inevitably occurs, as the flu-infected usually have their thirst and appetite mechanisms decreased as well. However, as the previous writer puts it: One of the most notable symptoms of having the "flu"the is a persistant (and often disgusting!) loss of fluid. This can be a result of vomiting, diarrhea or often a combination of the two. Within this fluid are precious ions (electrolytes) that enable all the good stuff in your body to happen: Muscle contractions, nerve impulses, even basic cellular metabolism! One of the most important (as far as your muscles are concerned) is potassium -- [although calcium, magnesium, and sodium are all equally important but just dont get the same amt of press]. Low potassium levels mean special ion channels in your muscle cells cannot function properly, and that leads to a sensation of "exhaustion", much like you just finished a marathon. Without potassium (and other molecules such as ATP) your muscles just can't function! If you have the flu and you'd like to beat the muscle ache, chow on some high potassium-sodium ratio foods such as avocados or dark green veggies (think spinach); [bananas are merely ok regarding this K/NA ratio, much more important than is absolute amount of potassium alone]. Gatorade or other (preferrably lower in sugar) sports drinks can help both replenish lost electrolytes (like potassium!) AND water, a great two-fer when you're socked in with this bug (watch the sugar level or you'll end up low on potassium again, if you get my drift!).
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Medical Insurance, Travel Insurance

What is considered a preexisting condition?

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A pre-existing condition is a medical condition that existed before you obtained health insurance. It is significant because the insurer may not cover the pre-existing condition for the duration of the pre-existing condition period. The policy will provide for a stated time period within which it will not provide benefits for the condition. The pre-existing condition exclusion period varies by insurance company, and also by the State in which the policy is issued. Currently, State law regulates the terms and conditions of insurance policies. For example, some States have disallowed certain types of provisions, including mcertain medical conditions to which they might otherwise apply. All of that may change if there occurs greater Federal involvement in the regulation of health insurance, but the odds are that new laws will apply only upon the expiration of existing insurance contracts and for the issuance of new contracts after such laws are implemented. The rationale for pre-existing condition exclusions is that medical insurance works the same way other insurances do: that insurance covers fortuitous occurrences, nor ones that are planned, intentional, or predictable. Stated otherwise, you need to have coverage in place before something adverse happens. An analogy is that just like you can't buy auto insurance after an accident to cover the cost of the accident, medical insurance only covers issues that arise unexpectedly after coverage has begun. Pre-existing conditions are usually chronic and often costly conditions such as: diabetes heart problems mental illness asthma COPD Hemophilia Epilepsy Chronic Infections a pregnancy prior to coverage an injury which occurred prior to coverage. multiple sclerosis, etc. certain allergies certain skin conditions If you think you may have a condition that might be pre-existing you can ask the insurance company if there are exceptions and if your physician can confirm you have not suffered or been treated for the problem during the time period designated by the insurance company. Some companies may decide they cannot cover you if you are seeking individual coverage (rather than group coverage).
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Lymphatic System

Is Non-hodgkin's lymphoma capitalized?

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It is non-Hodgkin with a capital on the proper name. The apostrophe-s is optional, and many people do not use it any more.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Nervous System

What are the common ailments of the nervous system?

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Common ailments of the nervous system include: Poliomyelitis Tumor Cerebral palsy Cerebral thrombosis Amnesia Epilepsy Meningitis Paralysis Encephalitis Spinocerebellar Degeneration Disease nana , infection of bacterial inanimous super caoptain barbel contusion concussion parinksons disease common ailments of the nervous system 1.the coronary is a weak befuddle head injury,brain tumor, describe the common ailments affecting the nervous syste? Some of the most common ailments of the nervous system include Multiple Sclerosis and Epilepsy. Some others are Cerebrovascular accident and Transient Ischemic Attack.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Symptoms, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

What are the symptoms of Swine Flu - Novel H1N1?

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Symptoms of H1N1/09 (Pandemic swine flu): Having a single one of these symptoms does not mean you have pandemic swine flu, but, you don't need to have all of these symptoms to suspect infection, either. The symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human seasonal influenza. Watch for some combination of the following symptoms: Fever of 101°F (41°C) or higher Coughing Headache Sneezing Body Aches Fatigue Dizziness Chest pain Abdominal pain Shortness of breath Malaise Runny Nose Sore throat Vomiting Diarrhea Rigors (chills or shivers) Caution: If you suspect that you might have a flu infection, consult a physician as soon as possible. Don't wait! It is important for people who have chronic health conditions, women who are pregnant, and people with other high risk factors to pay special attention to warning signs. Influenza can make the symptoms, of other chronic medical conditions, worse For Children: who may need urgent medical attention, symptoms include: fast breathing or trouble breathing; blueish or gray skin color; not drinking enough fluids; severe, persistent vomiting; not waking up or not interacting; being so irritable that the child doesn't want to be held; flu-like symptoms, after improving, return later with greater intensity. These are warning signs that physicians think about all the time with respiratory infections and are good things for parents to have in mind at all times but especially with the Novel H1N1 strain. For Adults: who may need urgent medical attention, symptoms include: difficulty breathing or shortness of breath; pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen; sudden dizziness, confusion; persistent or severe vomiting that doesn't go away; and flu-like symptoms that improve, but then come back again with a fever or worsening of cough. Other underlying medical conditions* can create the potential for more severe illness, and it is for that reason that people who have these underlying conditions, or the family members who care for such people, need to remain vigilant about these warning signs emerging. For a list of the those at most risk of the swine flu and of complications due to it, see below. It's often best to contact a health care provider for advice before going to an office or care center and waiting for an appointment. That's also a better strategy than going to an emergency room, but these warning signs can help people differentiate a cough or cold or respiratory symptoms without warning signs, from the type of signs that might lead you to want to get help from a medical provider urgently. To prevent catching swine flu, colds or other strains of flu and viruses: If you live with or care for someone known to have the swine flu virus, you should assume that you, too, can spread the disease. Wear a surgical face mask (model N95) while contacting and tending to someone with a virus, especially children, in case they cough or sneeze when you are close to them. Wash hands always before you touch your face, nose, eyes and mouth and before (as well as after) you touch other people's faces, mucous tissue. You should also wash your hands after you cough or sneeze and always use a tissue to cover your mouth and nose. Immediately throw the tissue away after one use. Wash your hands after touching used tissues. Cough into your elbow if you do not have a tissue. Don't use your bare hand unless you wash hands immediately after and before you touch anything or anyone. To prevent spreading swine flu, colds or other strains of flu and viruses: Even if you do not yet have symptoms, you can have the virus and spread it before you know you have it for one or two days after catching the flu. When you know you have been exposed, or when you know the risk is high for catching it, wash hands very frequently. Stay home from work or errands when sick, and keep your kids home if they or others in your family have any symptoms. The schools will recommend if it is safe for your children to attend school if there are other children from the school infected. Be prepared with day care alternatives if the schools announce a closure. Flu virus can live for approximately two hours on hard surfaces, perhaps longer on moist or soft materials. Use disinfectants recommended for control of viruses on surfaces that are commonly touched, such as telephones, door knobs, light switches, TV remote controllers, chair arms, public pens and pencils (take your own), and grocery cart handles, as well as the lavatory knobs, handles, and surfaces. Remember: Wash hands very frequently and be alert to what you touch with them. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when sneezing and or coughing. Stay away from large groups of people and around 6. Don't touch your eyes nose or mouth without washing hands first. Stay home when sick so other people don't get it. For additional information on preventing exposure to and distribution of the flu viruses, see the related questions below. *Underlying Medical Conditions or Other Factors That Create Higher Risk: children younger than 5 years old; persons aged 65 years or older; children and adolescents (younger than 18 years) who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy and who might be at risk for experiencing Reye syndrome after influenza virus infections; pregnant women; adults and children who have pulmonary disorders (including asthma, for example) or who have cardiovascular, hepatic, hematological, neurologic, neuromuscular, or metabolic disorders (such as diabetes); adults and children who have immunosuppression (including immunosuppression caused by medications like steroids and post-transplant drugs, or caused by HIV/AIDS), and; residents of nursing homes and other chronic-care facilities. people who are morbidly obese (see related question: Is obesity a risk factor for morbidity and mortality with Novel H1N1 - Swine Flu?) Information for those in the UK, from NHS: A doctor faced with a symptomatic patient cannot yet predict with certainty the course of their illness and whether or not they will be in the small proportion who may become more seriously ill. This is why antiviral medication is still being given to all those with swine flu in the UK, subject to their doctor's discretion. A doctor faced with a symptomatic patient cannot yet predict with certainty the course of their illness and whether or not they will be in the small proportion who may become more seriously ill. This is why antiviral medication is still being given to all those with swine flu in the UK, subject to their doctor's discretion. More information taken from the NHS website: It is important that as swine flu spreads, you know the symptoms of the disease so you can recognise it in yourself and others at an early stage. Please read the information about the swine flu on the NHS website and consider your symptoms carefully before using the National Pandemic Flu Service mentioned below. During the pandemic in 2009, most swine flu cases were mild, with symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. Only a small number of people had more serious symptoms. If you or members of your family end up with a fever (high temperature over 38°C/100.4°F) along with two or more of the following symptoms, you may have swine flu: unusual tiredness, headache, runny nose, sore throat, shortness of breath or cough, loss of appetite, aching muscles, diarrhoea or vomiting. Checking For Symptoms: It makes sense to always have a working thermometer at home, as fever is one of the main signs of this and many other infectious diseases. The NHS website provides a National Pandemic Flu Service#. If you are concerned you may have swine flu, stay at home and check your symptoms using the online guides at the pandemic flu service. Call your GP directly if: you have a serious existing illness that weakens your immune system, such as cancer, you are pregnant, you have a sick child under one year old, your condition suddenly gets much worse, or your condition is still getting worse after seven days (five days for a child). # Note: the National Pandemic Flu Service is a new online service that will assess your symptoms and, if needed, provide an authorisation number that can be used to collect antiviral medication from a local collection point. For those who do not have internet access, the same service can be accessed by telephone on: Telephone: 0800 151 3100 Minicom: 0800 151 3200 For more information available on the National Pandemic Flu Service site go to Flu Service: Q&A. High-risk groups: For most people, swine flu is a mild illness. Some people get better by staying in bed, drinking plenty of water and taking over-the-counter flu medication. However, some groups of people are more at risk of serious illness if they catch swine flu, and will need to start taking antiviral medication as soon as it is confirmed that they have the flu. It is already known that you are particularly at risk if you have: chronic (long-term) lung disease, chronic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, chronic neurological disease (neurological disorders include motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease), immunosuppression (whether caused by disease or treatment)and/or diabetes mellitus. Also at risk are: patients who have had drug treatment for asthma within the past three years, pregnant women, people aged 65 and older, and young children under five years old. It is vital that people in these higher-risk groups who catch swine flu get antivirals and start taking them as soon as possible, preferrably within 48 hrs of first signs.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Cancer, Diabetes

Why would someone rapidly lose weight?

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Our body weight is determined by the amount of energy that we take in as food and the amount of energy we spend in the activities throughout the day. But with the lifestyle we have been indulged into leads us to various weight related like issues like obesity, overweight, etc. Whether you are trying to lose 5 kg or more than that, the same principles determine how much weight you lose and how fast your weight loss will occur. Teas are also a great option for weight management like Shoonya FAT ZERO Pure Garcinia Cambogia & Green Tea, as it contain antioxidants that helps to lose weight. Source: https://www.tabletshablet.com/product-category/wellness/weight-management/
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Gallbladders and Bile, Vomit

What does it mean when you vomit bile and yellow substances?

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It means that your body has run out of undigested food for you to vomit, and is now vomiting what remains -- bile and other digestive juices in your stomach and upper intestine. Vomiting can be triggered by things other than just what is in your enteric (digestive) system. Bile itself is yellow in vomit, so this is probably the yellow substance you are seeing. Vomiting bile is usually a sign of serious illness, and I would strongly recommend that you go immediately to the doctor or Emergency Room. Chances are good that you have become very dehydrated and this is a life-threatening condition.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Cold and Flu, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

What is the current situation with the H1N1-09 Pandemic Swine Flu?

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Update June 20, 2013: The CDC has issued the following media advisory: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted today, 13 to 0, in favor of recommending FluBlok during the 2013-2014 influenza seasons for vaccination of persons 18 through 49 years of age with egg allergy of any severity. FluBlok was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2013. Unlike current production methods for other available seasonal influenza vaccines, FluBlok does not use the influenza virus or chicken eggs in its manufacturing process. _______________________________________________________________________________ Flu vaccines for the 2012-2013 flu season in the US: Flu vaccines have been around for decades, successfully preventing the flu, with very few untoward side effects. This year's trivalent seasonal flu vaccines will protect against the following three strains of influenza: Type A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) ~ the "swine flu vaccine", Type A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2), and Type B/Wisconsin/1/2010. There is also a new vaccine in the 2012-2013 flu season that is FluMist Quadrivalent. This new vaccine includes two Type B strains of flu instead of one. It contains B strains from both the B/Yamagata/16/88 and the B/Victoria/2/87 lineages in addition to the same strains of the Type A viruses (H1N1 and H3N2) that are included in the trivalent vaccines for this season. See the related questions below for more info. For the 2012-2013 Flu season in the US, the following vaccines for influenza are approved for use: AFLURIA Trivalent made by CSL/Merck AGRIFLU made by Novartis FLUARIX Trivalent made by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals FLUMIST made by MedImmune Vaccines, Inc. FLUMIST QUADRAVALENT made by MedImmune Vaccines, Inc. FLULAVAL Trivalent made by ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec FLUVIRIN Trivalent made by Novartis FLUZONE made by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. FLUZONE - High Dose made by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. FLUZONE-Intradermal made by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. _____________________________________________________________________________ For the 2011-2012 flu season in the US, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the approval of six vaccines on July 18, 2011. These approved trivalent vaccines will all contain vaccine for the H1N1/09 "Swine Flu" and two other viruses suggested by CDC for this season (see more below). These approved vaccines are: Afluria (CSL Limited) Fluarix (Glaxo Smith Kline Biologicals) FluLaval (ID Biomedical Corporation) FluMist (MedImmune Vaccines, Inc.) Fluvirin (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Limited) Fluzone, Fluzone High-Dose, Fluzone Intradermal (Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.) The Fluzone Intradermal is a new formulation for administration in the layers of the skin (intradermal injection) instead of the intramuscular (IM) injection. Fluzone Intradermal administration uses a microinjection system with a very fine needle. Approved for those aged 18 through 64. The CDC-approved trivalent vaccines for this flu season will protect against the following three virus strains: A/California/7/09 (H1N1)-like virus (Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus) A/Perth/16/2009/ (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus The H1N1/09 Swine Flu Pandemic is over, the world now has entered the post pandemic phase per the World Health Organization (WHO). World Health Organization's Director-General, Margaret Chan, announced on August 10, 2010 that the Pandemic Phase is over and we have entered the Post Pandemic Phase. The virus has killed more than 18,000 since April 2009, this figure is approximately 4% of the 250,000 to 500,000 annual influenza deaths. There may be some ongoing cases in limited locations around the world, however, the specifics and counts of cases are no longer being tracked by CDC, WHO, the US states, and most other countries, now that the pandemic has been declared over. Influenza cases are monitored, but specific H1N1/09 counts (and the lab tests needed to isolate the specific virus to be able to count them correctly) aren't routinely being done. The CDC publishes a weekly influenza surveillance report for the US called FluView that gives influenza-like illness statistics with some information from the US laboratories about results of testing they have done that gives a rough idea of the numbers of H1N1/09 still being found in positive lab tests. See the related question below or the related links section below for links to the weekly report. CDC also has an International Flu Report that you can access from the related question or link sections below. UPDATE March 26, 2011 International Flu Report from CDC: The CDC report indicates that the presence of H1N1/09 is still seen, but in fewer locations and smaller numbers. Those places that are still finding infections of this influenza virus are (see also the related links below for the full report): Europe According to WHO's EuroFlu, all reporting countries reported either low or medium influenza activity in Week 10. In 37 out of 47 reporting countries, influenza-like illness (ILI) activity peaked in recent weeks and is now declining. During Week 10, 42% of sentinel specimens (specimens routinely collected from designated health care facilities for surveillance purposes) tested positive for the influenza virus. Forty-six percent of those positive samples were influenza A (mainly 2009 H1N1) and 54% were influenza B. Asia According to WHO's Influenza Collaborating Center in China, influenza activity in China decreased sharply from peaks in Week 5 (northern China) and Week 4 (southern China). In Week 9, 17% of specimens tested in both regions were influenza-positive. The most common influenza subtypes in China were 2009 H1N1 and influenza B. In Mongolia, Japan and the Republic of Korea, influenza-like illness activity decreased. UPDATE on the week ending November 6, 2010 from WHO: 2010-2011 Influenza Season Week 44 ending November 6, 2010 All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received. Synopsis: During week 44 (October 31-November 6, 2010), influenza activity remained low in the United States. * Of 2,704 specimens tested by U.S. World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) collaborating laboratories and reported to CDC/Influenza Division, 185 (6.8%) were positive for influenza. * Two human infections with novel influenza A viruses were reported. * The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the epidemic threshold. * One influenza-associated pediatric death was reported and was associated with an influenza A virus for which the subtype was undetermined. * The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI), 1.3%, was below the national baseline, 2.5%. All 10 regions reported ILI below region-specific baseline levels; one state experienced low ILI activity, 49 states experienced minimal ILI activity. * Geographic spread of influenza in three states was reported as local; the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 34 states reported sporadic activity; Guam and 13 states reported no influenza activity, and the U.S. Virgin Islands did not report. From the CDC November 2010 Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality in the US 2009 - Oct. 2010 One influenza-associated pediatric death was reported to CDC during week 44 (Texas). This death was associated with an influenza A virus for which the subtype was not determined. The death reported during week 44 occurred between October 24 and October 30, 2010. In the US in the 2009 - 2010 Pandemic and flu season there have been a total of 282 deaths of children. In the 2010-2011 flu season in the US there has been only one pediatric death from influenza through October 2010. July_2010">July_2010">July_2010">July 2010 Estimation of unreported cases based upon reported cases: Updated Estimates from April 2009 - January 16, 2010: On February 12, 2010, CDC updated the estimates to include the time period from April 2009 through January 16, 2010. CDC estimates that between about 8,330 and 17,160 2009 H1N1-related deaths occurred between April 2009 and January 16, 2010. The mid-level in this range is about 11,690 2009 H1N1-related deaths." 7/15/2010 Situation Update According to the final FluView for the 2009-2010 influenza season (May 16-22, 2010), flu activity in the United States declined again from the previous week and is about the same as what is normally seen during the summer in the United States. Only a small number of influenza viruses are being reported, most of which are 2009 H1N1. Flu is unpredictable, but sporadic cases of flu, caused by either 2009 H1N1 or seasonal flu viruses, will likely continue to occur throughout the summer in the United States. Internationally, 2009 H1N1 viruses are still circulating, including in the Southern Hemisphere, which is entering its flu season 7/9/2010 Situation Update from WHO 2009 H1N1 continues to actively circulate in certain areas of the tropics, including the Caribbean, West Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. In the Southern Hemisphere, influenza A (H3N2) viruses are currently co-circulating with 2009 H1N1. In the Northern Hemisphere, the number of influenza B viruses detected has exceeded reports of influenza A. Influenza type B and A (H3N2) viruses have been detected in South Africa at an increasing rate. Low levels of influenza-like illness (ILI) have been reported from several Southern Hemisphere countries, including Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina. 2009 H1N1 and A (H3N2) viruses are currently co-circulating in certain Caribbean, Central America, and Southeast Asia countries. 2009 H1N1 is actively circulating in Southern and Western regions of India and Western regions of Africa. In Bangladesh, the seasonal influenza activity is shifting from 2009 H1N1 to influenza type B. Influenza type B continues to actively circulate in central and southern regions of Africa. 2/12/10 Estimated number of cases and deaths in the US from CDC: Cases: 57 million Deaths: 11,690 *Cumulative from April 2009 to January 16, 2010, plus CDC estimates of unreported cases based upon a calculated formula for *Cumulative from April 2009 to January 16, 2010, plus CDC estimates of unreported cases based upon a calculated formula for estimation of unreported/untested cases based on reported cases. June 17, 2010 Online Pharmacy Fraud, mislabeled drug TM-FLU sold as generic Tamiflu. FDA Announces Internet Scam A drug called TM-FLU from the online pharmacy called TRYDRUGS PHARMACEUTICALS PVT. LTD., at M.G. Road, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, does not contain Oseltamivir, which is the active ingredient of the well known brand of antiviral medicines, Tamiflu. This drug contains a different prescription medicine and should not be used as an OTC (Over the Counter) drug, it requires physician monitoring during its use. On June 17, 2010 the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) declared that this "generic Tamiflu" called TM-FLU is fraudulent and does not contain Oseltamivir. It will not be effective for influenza. There is no FDA approved generic Tamiflu product. Worse, it does contain Cloxacillin (one of the antibiotics of the penicillin group). This can cause deadly allergic reactions in some people, and antibiotics are not effective against the viruses that cause influenza. The following advice is given in the FDA announcement (see link): Health care professionals and consumers are encouraged to report adverse events that may be related to the use of these fraudulent products to the FDA's MedWatch Program by phone at 800-FDA-1088, by fax at 800-FDA-0178, or by mail at: MedWatch, HF-2, FDA, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852-9787. You should not use this drug from this online pharmacy. You should discard any remaining quantity in the proper way for your location. This pharmaceutical company is fake and they are doing fraudulent business. See the links below for more information. June 3, 2010 Although the H1N1/09 Swine Flu Pandemic is still in effect, it is believed to have now passed the peak. There are still enough cases of the pandemic virus widespread across the world, that it is still considered a pandemic, but the peak seems to have passed and it is anticipated that the gradual shift to fewer and fewer cases will continue. From the CDC April 23, 2010 During the week of April 11 - 17, 2010, according to the CDC, most key indicators declined from the prior week. Visits to doctors for influenza-like illness (ILI) declined from last week and are low nationally, with all 10 U.S. regions reporting ILI below region-specific baseline levels. Laboratory-confirmed hospitalizations rates have leveled off and very few hospitalizations were reported by states during the week ending April 17. The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) based on the 122 Cities Report increased over last week, but in general, are not higher than expected. Also, this indicator can lag behind the others. No pediatric deaths were reported this week. Since April 2009, CDC has received reports of 337 laboratory-confirmed pediatric deaths: 281 due to 2009 H1N1, 53 pediatric deaths that were laboratory confirmed as influenza A, but the flu virus subtype was not determined, and three pediatric deaths that were associated with seasonal influenza viruses. (Laboratory-confirmed deaths are thought to represent an undercount of the actual number. CDC has provided estimates about the number of 2009 H1N1 cases and related hospitalizations and deaths). No states reported widespread or regional influenza activity. This is the first week since the week ending December 13, 2008 that no states are reporting widespread or regional flu activity. The majority of the influenza viruses identified so far continue to be 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses. These viruses remain similar to the virus chosen for the 2009 H1N1 vaccine and remain susceptible to the antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir with rare exception. 3/5/10 From the World Health Organization (WHO): 5 March 2010 -- As of 28 February 2010, worldwide more than 213 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 16455 deaths. Summary: In the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, transmission of virus persists in some areas of Europe and Asia but influenza activity is declining and at low level in the most areas. The most active areas of transmission are currently observed in parts of Southeast Asia and East and South-eastern Europe. Recently, influenza type B is increasingly reported in Asia. 2/12/10 Estimated number of cases and deaths in the US*: Cases: 57 million Deaths: 11,690 *Cumulative from April 2009 to January 16, 2010, plus CDC estimates of unreported cases based upon a calculated formula for estimation of unreported/untested cases based on reported cases. Updated Estimates from April 2009 - January 16, 2010 On February 12, 2010, CDC updated the estimates to include the time period from April 2009 through January 16, 2010. "CDC estimates that between 41 million and 84 million cases of 2009 H1N1 occurred between April 2009 and January 16, 2010. The mid-level in this range is about 57 million people infected with 2009 H1N1. CDC estimates that between about 183,000 and 378,000 H1N1-related hospitalizations occurred between April 2009 and January 16, 2010. The mid-level in this range is about 257,000 2009 H1N1-related hospitalizations. CDC estimates that between about 8,330 and 17,160 2009 H1N1-related deaths occurred between April 2009 and January 16, 2010. The mid-level in this range is about 11,690 2009 H1N1-related deaths." Mortality Rates:UPDATE 03/07/10 The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has estimated that, as of 2/12/10, since the beginning of the pandemic, the US has had approximately 57 million cases of A-H1N1/09 Pandemic Swine Flu and approximately 11,690 resulting deaths. Based upon this, an estimate of the mortality rate in the US from the pandemic is 0.02%. In comparison, the CDC and World Health Organization (WHO) have estimated that with seasonal flu, "we see over 30 million cases in the United States. We see 200,000 hospitalizations and, on average, 36,000 deaths." (During the entire fall and winter flu season.) Based upon this, the average mortality rate of seasonal flu in the US would be 0.12 %. The statistics of this mortality rate variation and other information gathered during the pandemic are under study by epidemiologists. It may be attributable to the fact that the especially vulnerable demographic group of the elderly (age 65 and older) suffers the majority of the cases and deaths from seasonal flu (because their weakened immune systems are unable to fight it off before their frail bodies must attempt to deal with the symptoms caused by another new strain of virus). In contrast, the majority of cases of the pandemic swine flu are among the younger and healthier demographic groups, so that, except for the very young and those with underlying medical conditions, most are able to survive the disease. It is not fully understood yet why the elderly do not contract this virus subtype as easily as the typical seasonal viruses, but speculation is that they may have acquired immunity through prior exposure to a similar virus strain. *All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received. WORLD UPDATE Total................................Cases.......1562049.........Deaths......16665 As of 1/05/10* *Cumulative FROM THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) MUTATED VIRUSES NOVEMBER 20, 2009 The Norwegian Institute of Public Health has informed WHO of a mutation detected in three H1N1 viruses. The viruses were isolated from the first two fatal cases of pandemic influenza in the country and one patient with severe illness. So far on additional testing, no further cases with this mutation have been found. WHO believes this suggests that the mutation is not widespread in Norway. All of the mutated H1N1 viruses still respond to Tamiflu and Relenza (oseltamivir and zanamivir, respectively), and the pandemic swine flu (A-H1N1/09) vaccines are still effectively providing immunization against these virus mutations as well. Although further investigation is under way, no evidence currently suggests that these mutations are leading to an unusual increase in the number of H1N1 infections or a greater number of severe or fatal cases. Laboratories in the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network closely monitor influenza viruses worldwide and will remain vigilant for any further changes in the virus that may have public health significance." IN THE UK NOVEMBER 20, 2009 FROM BBC, RESISTANT MUTANT STRAIN OF A-H1N1/09 IN FIVE PEOPLE IN WALES Five patients on the same unit of a University Hospital in Wales appear to have contracted the A-H1N1/09 "Swine Flu" infection when it spread among the patients on their unit. The unit they shared treats those with underlying severe health conditions, which would have made them at higher risk of getting the disease. The hospital is keeping them isolated, and health officials say there is no risk to others. The strain has been found to be resistant to Tamiflu, one of the anti-viral medicines used to treat the swine flu. Although mutations that are resistant to Tamiflu have been found in a small number of cases (several dozen) around the globe during the pandemic, until now, those strains were evaluated and had not been able to spread from person to person. See BBC report [see link below] PETS AND SWINE FLU UPDATE 12/31/09 The first dog to be found to have Swine Flu (which was caught from the owner) was diagnosed in New York on 12/21/09 by veterinarians. The dog had shown signs of coughing, not eating, and lethargy accompanied with a fever when the owners took it to the vet. The elderly (13 year old dog) was given two days of IVs and antibiotics before being allowed to go home and is now recovering. There is currently no vaccine for pets for H1N1/09 influenza, just for seasonal flu, but the safeguards of proper cough and sneeze etiquette and hand washing that you would take with a human child should also be taken to prevent the spread to your pets, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). So far, there have been very few cases among pet animals, but in all cases, the animal had been in close proximity to a person in the household with the H1N1/09 virus. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has said if you are sick or a pet is sick with flu symptoms: "...isolate yourselves from each other, which we realize is only possible to some degree," said AVMA spokesman Michael San Filippo. An Animal Medical Center in New York representative recommends, "Don't play kissyface with your dog or your cat or your ferret. You wouldn't with your kids if you were sick, so don't do it with your pet." Unconfirmed cases of swine flu in a few dogs in China were reported on December 1, 2009, but the diagnosis had not yet been verified by lab results. ___________________________ The first dog to be found to have Swine Flu (which was caught from the owner) was diagnosed in New York on 12/21/09 by veterinarians. The dog had shown signs of coughing, not eating, and lethargy accompanied with a fever when the owners took it to the vet. The elderly (13 year old dog) was given two days of IVs and antibiotics before being allowed to go home and is now recovering. There have been several reported and confirmed cases of pet ferrets having contracted H1N1/09 pandemic swine flu from their owners. There is no evidence that the reverse has occurred (that a person got it from a ferret or any other pet). Also, there is now a case of a domestic house cat also with confirmed H1N1/09. It was in very close contact with the owner while the owner had the pandemic swine flu. It is suggested by the American Veterinary Medical Association that caution be taken with pets when anyone in the household has the flu. (The cat recovered fully from the flu). So far, no pot bellied pigs have been shown to have contracted the virus. Dogs do have their own strain of flu virus that is currently circulating and only a veterinarian can determine which type of flu they have, so watch your dog carefully for any signs of respiratory disease or distress. Keep your pets safe from the flu if a member of the household has the virus the same way you would protect other people by isolating the sick person as much as possible, avoid close contact with family and pets, and use good cough and sneeze etiquette and thorough frequent handwashing. If any pets show signs of the flu (respiratory cold-like symptoms), check with your veterinarian for advice. See more below at the related link for the American Veterinary Medical Association. VACCINE ADVERSE EFFECTS REPORT FROM CDC/FDA: As of a December 30, 2009 report of the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 32 cases have been reported of serious adverse effects of the A-H1N1/09 vaccine resulting in, or related to, deaths of those 32 people. See the related links section for a link to that full report. 12/23/09 A SECOND H1N1/09 VACCINE RECALL A second round of recall of H1N1/09 Swine Flu vaccine occurred 12/23/09 when MedImmune, the maker of the US approved live vaccine for intra-nasal administration, recalled just under 5 million doses of the vaccine. The recall was like the first vaccine recall earlier in the month, it was not a safety recall, it is because the vaccine had been tested to have a slight decrease in the potency. (See Vaccine section below for more details on the first recall.) The US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) stated that it was not unusual for vaccines to lose strength over time. This type of vaccine usually has a shelf-life of around 4 months. The FDA also does not recommend re-vaccination of those who had a vaccination using the recalled lots since the vaccines were potent enough when given in the prior months. The maker of the vaccine, a subsidiary of AstraZeneca, has also said that the potency of vaccines already given would be well above the necessary strength to provide protection without any need to revaccinate. The loss of strength was measured during routine quality testing which is ongoing. 12/30/09 The CDC and FDA have issued a summary of the Adverse Events that have been reported through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System about the H1N1/09 vaccine. See also above at the first of this answer and the related link section below for more information. The summary was developed based upon the information gathered by the FDA and CDC through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. This summary from the CDC is as of Dec 30, 2009, shows a possible link between 32 people's deaths and the vaccine. Almost 100 million doses have been distributed for use in the US alone. VAERS Summary: As of December 30, 2009, 99.3 million doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine had been shipped to vaccination providers in the United States, although the precise number of vaccines administered is unknown. As of December 30, 2009, VAERS had received 7326 adverse event reports following 2009 monovalent H1N1 vaccination. The vast majority (94%) of adverse events reported to VAERS after receiving the 2009 monovalent H1N1 vaccine are classified as "non-serious" (e.g., soreness at the vaccine injection site). Of the 7326 reports, 440 (6%) were reports that were classified as "serious" health events (defined as life threatening or resulting in death, major disability, abnormal conditions at birth, hospitalization, or extension of an existing hospitalization)*. The percentage of reports involving what would be considered serious health events is not different between 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines. Additionally, no new or unusual events or pattern of adverse events have emerged. VAERS reports continue to be monitored as more vaccine is administered. Among the 440 reports of serious health events, there were 32 reports of death. As with all reports of serious adverse events and deaths, the 32 VAERS reports that involve deaths are under review by CDC, FDA and the states where the reported deaths occurred. Preliminary findings do not indicate a common cause or pattern (such as similarities in age, gender, geographic location, illness surrounding death, or underlying medical conditions) to suggest that these deaths were associated with the vaccine. These cases are under further review pending additional medical records (e.g., autopsy reports, medical files). 12/23/09 A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) official, Dr. Anne Schuchat, estimated that 60 million Americans have now taken the vaccines with at least one dose. and said intense monitoring for side effects has not turned up any safety concerns As of today over 111 million doses of the four vaccines approved for distribution in the U.S. have been released for use. SECOND VACCINE RECALL 12/23/09 (also a non-safety recall) A second round of recall of H1N1/09 Swine Flu vaccine occurred 12/23/09 when MedImmune, the maker of the US approved live vaccine for intra-nasal administration, recalled just under 5 million doses of the vaccine. The recall was like the first vaccine recall earlier in the month, it was not a safety recall, it is because the vaccine had been tested to have a slight decrease in the potency. (See Vaccine section below for more details on the first recall.) VACCINE RECALL 12/15/09 The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the non-safety recall of certain lots of the H1N1/09 vaccine, totaling 1.2 million doses, on December 15, 2009. They determined that the vaccine in a particular lot of pre-filled syringes did not meet the range of potency (strength) that was specified by the FDA and the division of Merck and Company, Inc. for use in the US. Merck, whose division, Sanofi Pasteur, produced the vaccine, has confirmed that the recall affects 1.2 million doses. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) this non-safety issue has prompted the recall of swine flu vaccine that was prepared in single dose syringes for children under age three. These reports indicate that there is no safety issue and those who have already had the vaccination using these particular lots of vaccine do not need to have additional vaccine administered since the strength level is only slightly below what was required in the original approval by FDA. Only certain lots of the vaccine are included in the recall of December 15, 2009. In the manufacture of most medicines and vaccines, the recommended dose is based on a specified strength range that will be effective for the general population. Because a larger person may need slightly more and a smaller person slightly less, the exact measure of the recommended dose is adjusted based on clinical trials. These trials are used to determine the parameters of the dosage that can be effective for larger sized people, but still safe and not too much for the smaller sized people. In some types of medicines this dose must be more exact and then it is often based on the size of person, such as doses specified as so many milligrams or units per kg of weight. The doses of vaccines do not need to be as specific. But when the FDA has approved and expected delivery of a specific dose that will be safe and effective for the general population, instead of one which needs to be more finely adjusted by individual measurements, they will require the recall and expect the company to provide the drug exactly as stated in the approval documents. This is an indication that the ongoing monitoring of the H1N1/09 vaccine by the FDA is being carried out well and the watch is especially close. The recall is a reassuring indicator to medical professionals. The following statements were made by CDC: Should infants and children who received vaccines from these lots be re-vaccinated? No. The vaccine potency is only slightly below the "specified" range. The vaccine in these lots is still expected to be effective in stimulating a protective response despite this slight reduction in the concentration of antigen. There is no need to re-administer a dose to those who received vaccine from these lots. However, as is recommended for all 2009 H1N1 vaccines, all children less than 10 years old should get the recommended two doses of H1N1 vaccine approximately a month apart for the optimal immune response. Therefore, children less than 10 years old who have only received one dose of vaccine thus far should still receive a second dose of 2009 H1N1 vaccine. What action(s) should parents of children who have received vaccine from the recalled lots take? Parents of children who received vaccine from the recalled lots do not need to take any action, other than to complete the two-dose immunization series if not already completed. CDC has indicated that the following lots are included in the recall: 0.25 ml pre-filled syringes, 10-packs (NDC # 49281-650-25, sometimes coded as 49281-0650-25): UT023DA UT028DA UT028CB 0.25 ml pre-filled syringes, 25-packs (NDC # 49281-650-70, sometimes coded as 49281-0650-70): UT030CA VACCINE DISTRIBUTION Some states (such as Texas) are now allowing access to the A-H1N1/09 vaccine by the general public. The prioritization for high risk persons is no longer employed to determine eligibility for immunizations since production has caught up with the demand in those states. About 45 million doses have been released in the first round of vaccine distribution in the US according to the CDC and now the vaccine will be produced at a rate of approximately 20 million doses per week. The vaccines approved so far by the FDA for use in the US are those produced by Novartis, Sanofi, and CSL (who have produced the inactivated vaccines for injection), and MedImmune who has produced an attenuated (weakened) vaccine for administration in nasal spray for ages 2-49. The vaccines for Europe approved by EMEA, are two vaccines that are inactivated ("dead") and adjuvanted ("strengthened" so smaller doses can produce the same immunization to enable more doses). They are Focetria by Novartis and Pandemrix by GlaxoSmithKline and both are for administration by injection. Approval awaits for a third vaccine. (SEE ALSO VACCINE SECTION BELOW FOR MORE) HOW LONG ARE YOU CONTAGIOUS? New studies, on how long a person remains contagious, back up the previously reported CDC guidelines that one should be suspected to be capable of still spreading the Novel Swine Flu for one full week after the symptoms start, or until 24 hours after the fever subsides [while taking no fever reducers] which ever is longer, rather than the most recent CDC guidelines that waiting for 24 hours after fever subsides without taking fever reducers is long enough. The studies show that in some cases the virus remains in the nasal passages of patients for up to 16 days after symptoms begin. Below are some excerpts from the report: Swine flu also appears to be contagious longer than ordinary seasonal flu, several experts said. When the coughing stops is probably a better sign of when a swine flu patient is no longer contagious, experts said after seeing new research that suggests the virus can still spread many days after a fever goes away. Using a very sensitive test to detect virus in the nose or throat, [the study] found that 80 percent had it five days after symptoms began, and 40 percent seven days after. Some still harbored virus as long as 16 days later. How soon they started on antiviral medicines such as Tamiflu made a difference in how much virus was found, but not whether virus was present at all. . . Doctors know that people can spread ordinary seasonal flu for a couple of days before and after symptoms start by studying virus that patients shed in mucus. The first such studies of swine flu are just coming out now, and they imply a longer contagious period for the novel bug. A-H1N1/09 Has 0.01% Mortality Rate According to recent studies Until now, it has been difficult to come up with an estimate of the mortality rates of Swine Flu (novel H1N1/09), since the case numbers were being drawn from known cases from hospitalized patients or other laboratory confirmed cases, which were known to be just a fraction of the total number of infections (because those figures excluded the unknown number of mild cases treated at home, untested, and unreported.) Very rough estimates of the mortality rate of the pandemic A-H1N1/09 influenza have now been calculated from statistics gathered by a French study in late August 2009 and reported in the Public Library of Science (PLOS). Based on their findings, it is estimated that Novel Swine Flu is 100 times more virulent than seasonal flu. The main cause of death with A-H1N1/09 is viral pneumonia with resulting ARDS (Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome). Even though treated in a hospital ICU, approximately 50% of ARDS cases result in death. In the French study, the number of ARDS cases was found to be one in every 5000 cases, giving the estimate of ARDS deaths as 1 in 10,000 cases of infection. The number of deaths from ARDS in seasonal flu cases, based on empirical evidence in France, is calculated to be between 5 and 10 each year out of an average annual number of seasonal flu cases of 6 million infections. Until better counts of cases are available, that gives a rough estimate of the deaths due to ARDS resulting from seasonal influenza of one out of a million infected patients. The 1 death in 10,000 cases from A-H1N1/09 compared to 1 in 1,000,000 from seasonal flu strains gives the prior mentioned indications of A-H1N1/09 being 100 times more virulent than seasonal flu. (For the full article about the study, see the related links section below.) US Officials predicted in August 2009that there is a potential for 40% to 50 % of the US population to have had the A-H1N1/09 Virus over the course of the next two years. December 12, 2009 CDC UPDATE: Ongoing monitoring has continued to lead the CDC to conclusions that this virus is much different than the seasonal flu in the age of those affected. Those age 65 and older are much less at risk from 2009 H1N1 than with seasonal flu: "... this disease primarily affects people younger than 65 year old, with the number of cases, hospitalizations and deaths overwhelmingly occurring in people 64 years and younger. The risk of illness, hospitalization and death related to 2009 H1N1 is very age specific and very different from seasonal influenza. With seasonal influenza, about 60 percent of seasonal flu-related hospitalizations and 90 percent of flu-related deaths occur in people 65 years and older. The proportion of younger people being impacted by 2009 H1N1 is much greater than what occurs during seasonal flu and their risk of serious illness, including hospitalization and death from 2009 H1N1 is much greater than that for seasonal flu. People 65 and older are much less affected by this virus than what routinely occurs with seasonal influenza and therefore the risk of serious illness, hospitalization and death from 2009 H1N1 in people in this age group is much less than that posed by seasonal flu." See case and fatality numbers by US state below. WORLD UPDATE Totals: more than..........Cases......1562049.........Deaths......16665 As of 1/05/10* *Cumulative. (Given that countries are no longer required to test and report individual cases, the number of cases reported actually understates the real number of cases, according to WHO). SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE From WHO 11/13/09 ""In the temperate region of the southern hemisphere, little pandemic influenza activity has been reported in recent weeks. Of note, a cluster of pandemic influenza cases been reported in Argentina in the capital area. " WHO: Pandemic Phase (6) is still in effect. It is important to note that this does not indicate an increase in the severity, just that the criteria for Phase 6 regarding the spread of the Novel H1N1 Influenza have been met. 10/25/09 The President Barack Obama has declared a US National Emergency due to the increase in cases of H1N1/09 and concern about a potential over-burdening of the national health care infrastructure in the US. Update 12/13/09 The CDC is allocating doses of the vaccine to each state as the vaccine is produced and released by the drug companies. The allocation process is explained by them as: "The number of doses "allocated" for ordering is the amount that is at the distribution depots and ready for states to order. The quantity of vaccine allocated is based on the project area's population size. As an example, if 6 million doses total (3 million doses of nasal spray vaccine AND 3 million doses of injectable vaccine) are ready for ordering nationally and a state has 10% of the US population, then their allocation for today is 600,000 doses total (300,000 doses of the nasal spray vaccine and 300,000 doses of injectable vaccine)." Distribution at the point of service in some locations is still being made on a priority basis to those at highest risk first: pregnant women; individuals who live with or care for children under 6 months old; healthcare and emergency service workers; individuals between 6 months to 24 years old; and then adults 25 to 64 with chronic health conditions. There is a single injection for adults and children over 9 years old. Children under 10 will need two vaccinations, a second one approximately a month after the first one will provide the needed protection for these with immature immune systems. In adults fully immunity is usually developed within 8 to 10 days of the vaccination. In children who require two doses of vaccine, full immunity takes slightly longer after the second vaccination, approximately two weeks. The CDC and WHO recommend that people also get the seasonal flu shot as usual. It will have no protection against A-H1N1/09, and the swine flu shot will have no protection against the seasonal flu strains that are expected to be in the Northern Hemisphere this fall and winter as usual. The seasonal and H1N1 vaccines could be given on the same date, however, you should not wait to get the seasonal flu shot until the swine flu shot is available to your risk group. As soon as you have an opportunity to get the seasonal flu shot you should go ahead and get that done as soon as possible. The H1N1/09 vaccine is made from the pandemic strain of swine flu, but otherwise it is being made the same way and with the same preservatives, and medium for injection as has been used for decades now for seasonal flu shots. So there is no expectation of problems with getting the vaccination than that which would be normal for the seasonal flu injections. Over the decades of use of this type of vaccine, problems have been very low. There have been very few reactions or problems with this method of vaccine development and delivery and there is no scientific data to support the concerns that some have voiced about the preservative thimerosal. There is no cause and effect data linking autism to the thimerosal in scientific studies, or other problems. The minuscule amount of mercury in the preservative's compound ingredients is no more than would be obtained through a meal of fish. Some manufacturers have been developing single doses of vaccine that will not contain the thimerosal which may be available to those who have this concern. The larger 10cc vials will have to have the preservative added, but single dose vials and single dose pre-loaded syringes may be an option for some. Discuss this with your health care professional in advance of presenting for the vaccination if you have concerns. Vaccinations Are Voluntary In the US* August 21, 2009 excerpts from the press briefing by CDC: "The whole vaccination program is voluntary, whether or not a person receives vaccine and at the national level, there are no mandates for vaccination." * *Exception: In some states, such as NY, health care workers are required by law to get the vaccination if they work in a clinical practice with patients in their care. ". . . the protective effects of influenza vaccine or for the most part, almost any vaccine, are not immediate. The body has to take its time to generate some antibody, that usually occurs over a couple week period. So even with a very effective vaccine and even where only one dose is required, people should not presume that the minute they're immunized they're protected. Also, again, in the viewpoint of being very clear about influenza vaccines they are generally not like the other vaccines, polio or measles vaccine, many which are 95% plus effective in preventing disease if you're exposed to it, and influenza vaccines in healthy, young adults are not quite that protective. There's various estimates of protection, depending on the match of the strain, but, for example, with a well-matched strain in healthy, young adults, protection level is in the area of 70%, 80%, might be typical. . . " "That has important implications, even if you're vaccinated, wash those hands, cover those coughs, stay home if you're sick." August 21, 2009 excerpts from the press briefing about vaccine production by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): ". . . with respect to safety, these are the studies of licensed vaccines from licensed manufacturers, where what's been changed is just the use of this particular H1 strain as opposed to other H1 strains we use in seasonal vaccines so there is a long, accumulated safety database about these products. . . " Manufacturers The manufacturers who were contracted and licensed by the US Health and Human Services to produce the H1N1/09 Vaccine are the same ones used by the US for seasonal flu since 2004: Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi Pasteur, CSL Biotherapies, and MedImmune. Taking precautions is a responsibility we all share. Protect yourself and others by getting a vaccination and by using proper hygiene. Visit Flu.gov to learn how you can help promote public awareness. Antiviral Medications VIRUSES RESISTANT TO OSELTAMIVIR (TAMIFLU) IDENTIFIED 11/20/09 Cluster of Tamiflu Resistant A-H1N1/09 virus reported 11/20/09 found in the US in a North Carolina hospital: Duke University Medical Center of Durham, NC has reported Tamiflu-resistant strains of A-H1N1/09 Swine Flu now found to have infected a few patients in the hospital. It is thought that the infections originated at the University hospital. Hospital officials say that they do not believe this indicates increased risks for the general population, since all four patients were extremely ill cancer patients, and on the same unit in the hospital. The reports of the Tamiflu resistant strains in the US came on the same day as similar reports from Norway and Wales, on Friday, 11/20/09 [for more information on the UK and Norway, see below and related links at the bottom of the page]. About 15 other situations with resistant mutated strains have been reported around the world since April, including four in the United States. Some cases proved fatal, but others caused only mild illnesses according to the CDC. According to the CDC 12/13/09: "To prevent the spread of antiviral resistant virus strains, CDC reminds clinicians and the public of the need to continue hand and cough hygiene measures for the duration of any symptoms of influenza, even while taking antiviral medications." Drug Resistant Strains of H1N1/09 Close to 1000 pandemic H1N1 viruses have been evaluated by the laboratories in the Global Influenza Surveillance Network for antiviral drug resistance. All other viruses have been shown sensitive to both oseltamivir and zanamivir. WHO and its partners will continue to conduct ongoing monitoring of influenza viruses for antiviral drug resistance. Therefore, based on current information, these instances of drug resistance appear to represent sporadic cases of resistance. At this time, there is no evidence to indicate the development of widespread antiviral resistance among pandemic H1N1 viruses. Based on this risk assessment, there are no changes in WHO's clinical treatment guidance. Antiviral drugs remain a key component of the public health response when used as recommended. Tamiflu Side Effects in Children 7/31/09 According to research from the European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training and colleagues from the Health Protection Agency (HPA) in London, which was published in Eurosurveillance, the peer-reviewed journal of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, children are having neuropsychiatric side effects from Tamiflu such as nightmares, inability to concentrate, insomnia, and slight confusion. The article at the NHS web site (link is provided to the full article in the related links section below), states: ". . . more than half of children taking Tamiflu to combat swine flu suffer side effects such as nausea, insomnia and nightmares," said The Daily Telegraph. It also said the study suggests that one in five children who took part reported having a neuropsychiatric side effect." These were almost all in Japan and none so far have been reported in the US. % of High Risk Cases About 70% of individuals that are hospitalized with complications from A-H1N1/09 influenza have some kind of underlying disease. The most predominant of that is asthma. The second is diabetes. Other common underlying conditions believed to have contributed to the complications requiring hospitalization include Immunocompromised status, either through cancer chemotherapy or other compromising conditions (about 13%) and chronic underlying heart disease. Guidance Documents from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) See related links section for links to the full CDC guidance documentation. US GUIDANCE FOR INSTITUTES OF HIGHER LEARNING FROM CDC 8/20/09 See the links below in the related links section for links to the following Guidance Papers: Guidance for Responses to Influenza for Institutions of Higher Education During the 2009 - 2010 Academic Year. This covers recommendations divided into two groups: Recommendations to use now, during this academic year, assuming a similar severity to the spring/summer H1N1 flu outbreak, and recommendations to consider adding if the flu begins to cause more severe disease. Preparing for the Flu: A communication Toolkit for Institutions of Higher Education. Includes Posters, Fact Sheets, Q&A Information, Templates for letters and announcements, and other communication resources. Technical Report on CDC Guidance for Responses to Influenza for Institutions of Higher Education during the 2009 - 2010 Academic Year. Includes detailed explanations of the strategies presented in the CDC Guidance for Responses to Influenza for Institutions of Higher Education during the 2009- 2010 Academic Year and suggestions on how to use them. The guidance is designed to decrease exposure to regular seasonal flu and 2009 H1N1 flu while limiting the disruption of day-to-day activities and the vital academic activities that go on in Institutions of Higher Education. Portions of this guidance pertaining to dormitories and residence halls may be useful for residential (boarding) schools providing primary and secondary education, with adaptations as needed for their younger population. US SCHOOL GUIDANCE FOR FALL TERM FROM CDC 8/7/09: (See related links section for a link to this information at the CDC web site.) GUIDANCE FOR BUSINESSES AND EMPLOYERS FROM CDC 8/19/09 Arrange for close regular monitoring of media health information and state and local updates to stay alert to changes in the community. CDC also provides Preparing for the Flu a Communication Toolkit for Businesses and Employers , see link to this information in related links section below. OTHER GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS Guidance Documents on other topics from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO are available at their web sites, see links below. For an alphabetical listing of the WHO Guidance Document topics see the link below. Changes in A-H1N1/09 Activity Reports from CDC and WHO CDC follows suit with WHO, stops reports of numbers of cases of Novel H1N1, continues hospitalization and death counts and monitoring. They are now using a new methodology for estimating quantitative figures. See link below for methods. The statistics in the answer to this WikiAnswers question will have to be modified as availability of reliable data changes. Updates based on available data will continue. World Case Counts and Fatality Numbers By Country This section is no longer being updated~Last updates 1/5/10 Total...............................Cases.......1562049.........Deaths......16665 Cumulative totals (lab verified cases only*) *This will make totals vary from the estimated totals reported elsewhere in this Q&A -As of 1/05/10 World Case Counts and Fatality Numbers By Country Country Cases Deaths Afghanistan 853 17 Akrotiri & Dhekelia 88 0 Albania 350 6 Algeria 633 39 Andorra 1 0 Angola 37 0 Anguilla 14 0 Antigua and Barbuda 4 0 Argentina 142,592 617 Armenia 101 2 Aruba 13 0 Australia 37,642 191 Austria 964 5 Azerbaijan 14 2 Bahamas 29 4 Bahrain 1,346 7 Bangladesh 802 6 Barbados 154 3 Belarus 102 20 Belgium 76,973 17 Belize 42 0 Bermuda, UKOT 10 0 Bhutan 6 0 Bolivia 2,310 58 Bosnia & Herzegovina 558 7 Botswana 31 0 Brazil 58,178 2,105 Brit.Virgin Islands, UKOT 19 0 Brunei 971 1 Bulgaria 766 35 Cambodia 531 6 Cameroon 4 0 Canada 25,828 401 Cape Verde 62 0 Cayman Islands, UKOT 112 1 Chile 12,258 150 China* (Hong Kong) 33,109 50 China* (Mainland) 115,208 501 Colombia 3,288 193 Cook Islands 106 1 Costa Rica 1,596 47 Cote d'Ivoire 3 0 Croatia 526 22 Cuba 794 41 Cyprus 297 3 Czech Republic 1,207 48 Democratic Republic of Congo 78 0 Denmark 651 21 Djibouti 9 0 Dominica 36 0 Dominican Republic 491 23 Ecuador 2,251 96 Egypt 10,056 120 El Salvador 834 31 Estonia 628 7 Ethiopia 6 0 Falkland Islands 7 1 Faroe Islands 44 0 Fiji 234 0 Finland 6,122 36 France 5,000 221 France, New Caledonia, FOC 27 6 French Polynesia, FOC 4 0 French Guiana 126 2 Gabon 1 0 Georgia 759 6 Germany 209,885 132 Ghana 54 1 Gibraltar 35 0 Greece 8,768 60 Greenland 1 0 Grenada 20 0 Guadaloupe, FOC 2 0 Guam 269 2 Guatemala 1,170 18 Guernsey 17 0 Guyana 73 0 Haiti 91 0 Honduras 560 18 Hungary 283 37 Iceland 8,650 2 India 25,572 898 Indonesia 1,097 10 Iran, Islamic Republic 3,672 147 Iraq 2,868 40 Ireland 3,189 22 Isle Of Man 75 0 Israel 4,330 75 Italy 3,593 188 Jamaica 149 6 Japan 11,636 108 Jersey 234 0 Jordan 3,033 16 Kazakhstan 17 0 Kenya 417 0 Kiribati 4 0 Korea, North 50 47 Republic of Korea (South) 108,234 170 Kosovo 98 10 Kuwait 8622 27 Kyrgyzstan 61 1 Laos 242 2 Latvia 57 24 Lebanon 1838 5 Lesotho 65 0 Libya 223 1 Liechtenstein 13 0 Lithuania 68 14 Luxembourg 333 2 Macau 2,625 2 Macedonia 2600 14 Madagascar 877 3 Malawi 4 0 Malaysia 12,210 77 Maldives 25 1 Malta 718 5 Marshall Islands 115 1 Martinique, FOC 3 0 Mauritius 69 8 Mexico 67,982 823 Micronesia 79 0 Moldova 1,024 17 Monaco 36 0 Mongolia 1,073 26 Montenegro 119 2 Montserrat 21 0 Morocco 2,775 38 Mozambique 101 2 Myanmar 68 0 N. Mariana Islands 6 0 Namibia 72 1 Nauru 8 0 Nepal 112 1 Netherlands 1,473 51 Neth. Antilles, Curacao** 8 0 Neth. Antilles, Sint Maarten 2 0 New Caledonia, FOC 12 0 New Zealand 3,198 22 Nicaragua 2,172 11 Nigeria 2 0 Norway*** 12,654 29 Oman 6,029 30 Pakistan 121 10 Palau 46 0 Palestinian Territories 1,582 22 Panama 787 11 Papua New Guinea 12 0 Paraguay 855 52 Peru 9,003 205 Philippines 5,212 30 Poland 2,024 116 Portugal 166,922 58 Puerto Rico 908 49 Qatar 550 8 Republic of the Congo 21 0 Romania 5,421 42 Russia 24,299 580 Rwanda 331 0 Saint Kitts 6 2 Saint Lucia 55 1 Saint Maarten 2 0 Saint Vincent 17 0 Samoa 138 2 San Marino 5 0 Sao Tome & Principe 41 2 Saudi Arabia 14,532 97 Serbia 520 47 Seychelles 33 0 Singapore 1,217 19 Slovakia 955 25 Slovenia 990 13 Solomon Islands 4 1 Somalia 2 0 South Africa 12,642 93 Spain 22,379 256 Sri Lanka 422 23 Sudan 24 1 Suriname 138 2 Swaziland 5 0 Sweden 2,130 20 Switzerland 11,210 9 Syria 432 127 Taiwan 5,474 35 Tajikistan 16 0 Tanzania 677 1 Thailand 29,886 191 Timor-Leste 6 0 Tonga 20 1 Trinidad & Tobago 211 5 Tunisia 1200 15 Turkey 12,316 507 Turks & Caicos 44 0 Tuvalu 23 0 Uganda 251 0 Ukraine 57,862 213 United Arab Emirates 125 6 United Kingdom 27,826 303 United States of America 111,324 4,869 Uruguay 550 33 Vanuatu 3 0 Venezuela 1,973 121 Viet Nam 11,083 52 Virgin Islands (US) 80 1 West Bank & Gaza Strip ? ? Yemen 5,038 25 Zambia 726 0 Zimbabwe 1,318 0 Total 1,562,049 16,665 -As of 1/05/10 Cumulative figures are subject to revision Abbreviations: UKOT: United Kingdom Overseas Territory FOC: French Overseas Collectivity OT: Overseas Territory Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao **: 3 confirmed cases: The three confirmed cases are crew members of a cruise ship. They did not leave the boat during their illness nor during the 24 hours preceding the onset of symptoms. Norway***: 7 confirmed cases are cruise ship crew and passengers. None left the ship during the illness nor 24 hours before the onset of symptoms. CHANGES IN THE CDC REPORTING OF NOVEL H1N1 (A-H1N1/09) CASES 7/24/09 From CDC: "Because only a small proportion of persons with respiratory illness are tested for novel H1N1, at this time, confirmed and probable case counts represent a significant underestimation of the true number of novel H1N1 flu cases in the U.S., so the true benefit of reporting these numbers to track the course of the epidemic is questionable. In addition, because of the extensive spread of novel H1N1 flu within the United States, it has become extremely resource-intensive for states to count individual cases. Instead of reporting confirmed and probable novel H1N1 flu cases, CDC has transitioned to using its traditional flu surveillance systems to track the progress of both the novel H1N1 flu pandemic and seasonal influenza. These systems work to determine when and where flu activity is occurring, track flu-related illness, determine what flu viruses are circulating, detect changes in flu viruses and measure the impact of flu on hospitalizations and deaths in the U.S."" US Case Counts and fatality numbers by state This is being reported from various available sources, since the CDC is no longer publishing cases and deaths by state on a weekly basis. The timing of information about one state may be off slightly from that of another, the date at the top of the list will be applicable to most entries but beside each state there may be a different date, in which case, it will be the date of that particular state's information that is provided. 1/14/10 Estimated number of cases and deaths in the US*: Cases: 115431 Deaths: 10837 *Cumulative, plus CDC estimates of unreported cases This section is no longer being updated~Last updates 1/14/10 US Case Counts and fatality numbers by state - State Cases Deaths Alabama 2,453 39 Alaska 460 12 Arizona 8,545 140 Arkansas 154 20 California 10,031 470 Colorado 1,550 59 Connecticut 5,194 30 Delaware 381 6 District of Columbia 54 1 Florida 3,636 187 Georgia 886 41 Guam 338 2 Hawaii 2,221 11 Idaho 1,165 22 Illinois 4,416 86 Indiana 317 37 Iowa 739 40 Kansas 1,201 26 Kentucky 2,042 37 Louisiana 1,876 41 Maine 2,220 18 Maryland 1,284 41 Massachusetts 1,912 29 Michigan 3,166 76 Minnesota 2,174 60 Mississippi 1,279 14 Missouri 1515 11 Montana 949 19 Nebraska 430 14 Nevada 2,437 36 New Hampshire 722 9 New Jersey 1,414 40 New Mexico 308 50 New York 2,738 157 North Carolina 638 81 North Dakota 650 3 Ohio 227 33 Oklahoma 237 40 Oregon 1,105 75 Pennsylvania 10,934 75 Puerto Rico 908 49 Rhode Island 203 13 Samoa, American 85 1 South Carolina 1,634 41 South Dakota 2,081 23 Tennessee 1,163 50 Texas 11,403 203 Utah 988 44 Vermont 404 3 Virgin Islands 80 1 Virginia 327 35 Washington 658 91 West Virginia 1,214 20 Wisconsin 9,555 50 Wyoming 725 10 Total 115,431 10,837 -As of 1/14/10 *Numbers are likely under reported, see information above about CDC's new estimates. Travel Advice The CDC has recommended that anyone with flu like symptoms should not travel for 7 days following the beginning of the first symptoms or until there have been no symptoms for at least 24 hours [including no fever, without fever reducing drugs], whichever is longer. Some countries are screening incoming flights for people with symptoms of the flu (and especially those coming from the US) and putting those with possible H1N1 in quarantine or requiring other precautionary steps to be taken. See the related question link below for the following question for additional details of travel information and advice from the US Department of State and the CDC: See additional information in the related questions below for virus prevention techniques. See the CDC link below for state by state information from each state's health department. For a weekly report from the CDC with charts and graphs and lots of interesting data, see the related link below in related link section.A link to the CDC Novel H1N1 Influenza Information in Spanish is provided in links below as well as a link to a full listing of the other languages in which the CDC information is available.
Asked in Pregnancy Symptoms, Conditions and Diseases

Can yeast infections be a sign of pregnancy?

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Well, I just positive today and have had a yeast infection for the last three. I have had five pregnancies (2 ended in miscarriage) and every time I got a yeast infection just days before testing positive. Other than pregnancy I have had two infections, both at the end of taking antibiotics. However, for pregnancy, it is just a coincidence. On my first pregnancy, I had a yeast infection, I thought it was the reason I wasn't having my period. Well, my husband ask me if I could be pregnant. I kept telling him no just give it another day or two. Well, two weeks after my period was suppose to start we found out that we WERE PREGNANT. So, I would just say, if you think you might be, before you go to the store for some over the counter treatment, pick up a pregnancy test. You can never be too sure. When I was pregnant I read just about everything dealing with pregnancy and never read or heard anything like that. Have you taken any antibiotics? They almost always cause yeast infections.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases

What is the cure for nosiness?

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Sadly, at the moment, there isn't one. But most nosey people are doing their best to not stick their noses in other people's business, except for when it's really something that should be known by all, but that's it. Oh, and except for when it's information just too juicy for someone not to know, but it stops there. Oh yeah, and when it's slightly related to something that's almost similar to a situation they kind of know of someone going through whom they may give advice to, but no more than that. And of course when they need something to talk about but can't come up with a topic at that moment, but then it stops. And maybe when they are pretty bored and just want to know for the sake of it, but the nosiness ends there.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Skin Care, Skin Disorders, Acne, Drinking Water

Does drinking water help get rid of acne?

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Sadly, no. All you can do is wash your face once or twice a day, most importantly before bed. Use drugstore acne treatments on your spots, and moisturize everywhere else. Don't pick or bother your acne, and try to do nice things like exfoliate or steam your face every once in a while. It really does help. If that still doesn't leave your skin beautiful and smooth, then see a dermatologist and they can help with medicines or even removal.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Allergies, Head, Ears, and Nose

Is there a hereditary link to food allergies?

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Yes-sometimes food allergies/intolerances can be hereditary. This is most common when there is a history of allergies in the family.
Asked in Health, Conditions and Diseases, Head, Ears, and Nose, Headaches

Why is a headache only on the left side of head?

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There are a wide variety of answers to this question. The most common and least dangerous is a muscular strain at the neck or front of the skull, producing a unilateral headache. Another possibility is migraines. Have you worked out hard recently? Fallen, or been invovled in a car accident? Heavy duty stress? Any of these can cause these symptoms. First let's check the easy, likely stuff,and go from there. A bit more: Migraine headaches often occur on the same side of the head each time, especially for those who have them on a fairly frequent basis. For years I had migraines, which were always on the right side. Some people have them on the right side, some on the left. If you continue to have them, or if you've already been having them for a while, you really need to see a doctor for a diagnosis and treatment.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

Where have there been deaths and cases of H1N1-09 Pandemic Swine Flu?

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October 2010, The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the H1N1/09 Pandemic over, and reported that we are now in the Post Pandemic Phase of the WHO Pandemic Phases. The report included that the virus has caused cases in every country of the world now. There are still places with outbreaks, but not with epidemics or pandemics. Get your flu shot now in the US, it contains the vaccine for preventing this virus as well as for two other viruses and then through prevention of infection, the spread will be entirely halted. 3/5/10 From the World Health Organization (WHO): 5 March 2010 -- As of 28 February 2010, worldwide more than 213 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 16455 deaths. Summary: In the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, transmission of virus persists in some areas of Europe and Asia but influenza activity is declining and at low level in the most areas. The most active areas of transmission are currently observed in parts of Southeast Asia and East and South-eastern Europe. Recently, influenza type B is increasingly reported in Asia. In the US March 15, 2010, according to the CDC, key indicators of the state of the pandemic during the week of February 28 - March 6, 2010 included: No states reported widespread influenza activity. Five states reported regional influenza activity. They are: Alabama, Georgia, Maine, Mississippi and South Carolina. The majority of the influenza viruses identified so far continue to be 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses. These viruses remain similar to the virus chosen for the 2009 H1N1 vaccine, and remain susceptible to the antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir with rare exception. Some influenza B viruses are circulating at low levels, and these viruses remain similar to the influenza B virus component of the 2009-10 seasonal flu vaccine. 2/12/10 Estimated number of cases and deaths in the US*: Cases: 57 million Deaths: 11,690 *Cumulative from April 2009 to January 16, 2010, plus CDC estimates of unreported cases based upon a calculated formula for estimation of unreported/untested cases based on reported cases. Updated Estimates from April 2009 - January 16, 2010 On February 12, 2010, CDC updated the estimates to include the time period from April 2009 through January 16, 2010. "CDC estimates that between 41 million and 84 million cases of 2009 H1N1 occurred between April 2009 and January 16, 2010. The mid-level in this range is about 57 million people infected with 2009 H1N1. CDC estimates that between about 183,000 and 378,000 H1N1-related hospitalizations occurred between April 2009 and January 16, 2010. The mid-level in this range is about 257,000 2009 H1N1-related hospitalizations. CDC estimates that between about 8,330 and 17,160 2009 H1N1-related deaths occurred between April 2009 and January 16, 2010. The mid-level in this range is about 11,690 2009 H1N1-related deaths." Mortality Rates: UPDATE 03/07/10 The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has estimated that, as of 2/12/10, since the beginning of the pandemic, the US has had approximately 57 million cases of A-H1N1/09 Pandemic Swine Flu and approximately 11,690 resulting deaths. Based upon this, an estimate of the mortality rate in the US from the pandemic is 0.02%. In comparison, the CDC and World Health Organization (WHO) have estimated that with seasonal flu, "we see over 30 million cases in the United States. We see 200,000 hospitalizations and, on average, 36,000 deaths." (During the entire fall and winter flu season.) Based upon this, the average mortality rate of seasonal flu in the US would be 0.12 %. The statistics of this mortality rate variation and other information gathered during the pandemic are under study by epidemiologists. It may be attributable to the fact that the especially vulnerable demographic group of the elderly (age 65 and older) suffers the majority of the cases and deaths from seasonal flu (because their weakened immune systems are unable to fight it off before their frail bodies must attempt to deal with the symptoms caused by another new strain of virus). In contrast, the majority of cases of the pandemic swine flu are among the younger and healthier demographic groups, so that, except for the very young and those with underlying medical conditions, most are able to survive the disease. It is not fully understood yet why the elderly do not contract this virus subtype as easily as the typical seasonal viruses, but speculation is that they may have acquired immunity through prior exposure to a similar virus strain. WORLD UPDATE</a>Total................................Cases.......1562049.........Deaths......16665 As of 1/05/10* *Cumulative % of High Risk Cases About 70% of individuals that are hospitalized with complications from A-H1N1/09 influenza have some kind of underlying disease. The most predominant of that is asthma. The second is diabetes. Other common underlying conditions believed to have contributed to the complications requiring hospitalization include Immunocompromised status, either through cancer chemother Changes in A-H1N1/09 Activity Reports from CDC and WHO CDC follows suit with WHO, stops reports of numbers of cases of Novel H1N1, continues hospitalization and death counts and monitoring. They are now using a new methodology for estimating quantitative figures. See link below for methods. Other updates and information from CDC and other world sources will continue to be compiled here as it becomes available. From the World Health Organization (WHO): 16 JULY 2009 | GENEVA -- "WHO will no longer issue the global tables showing the numbers of confirmed cases for all countries. However, as part of continued efforts to document the global spread of the H1N1 pandemic, regular updates will be provided describing the situation in the newly affected countries." The statistics in the answer to this WikiAnswers question will have to be modified as availability of reliable data changes. Updates based on available data will continue. World Case Counts and Fatality Numbers By Country See also above Regional totals. Total...............................Cases.......1562049.........Deaths......16665 As of 1/05/10 Cumulative totals (lab verified cases only*) *This will make totals vary from the estimated totals reported elsewhere in this Q&A -As of 1/05/10 World Case Counts and Fatality Numbers By Country CountryCasesDeathsAfghanistan85317Akrotiri & Dhekelia880Albania350 6 Algeria633 39 Andorra10Angola370Anguilla140Antigua and Barbuda40Argentina142,592617Armenia101 2 Aruba130Australia37,642191Austria9645 Azerbaijan142Bahamas294Bahrain1,3467Bangladesh8026Barbados1543Belarus10220Belgium76,97317Belize420Bermuda, UKOT100Bhutan60Bolivia2,31058Bosnia & Herzegovina558 7 Botswana310Brazil58,1782,105Brit.Virgin Islands, UKOT190Brunei9711Bulgaria76635Cambodia5316 Cameroon40Canada25,828401 Cape Verde620Cayman Islands, UKOT1121Chile12,258150China* (Hong Kong)33,10950China* (Mainland)115,208501Colombia3,288193Cook Islands1061Costa Rica1,59647Cote d'Ivoire30Croatia52622 Cuba79441 Cyprus2973 Czech Republic1,207 48 Democratic Republic of Congo78 0Denmark65121 Djibouti90Dominica360Dominican Republic49123Ecuador2,25196 Egypt10,056120El Salvador83431 Estonia628 7 Ethiopia60Falkland Islands71Faroe Islands440Fiji2340Finland6,122 36 France5,000221France, New Caledonia, FOC276French Polynesia, FOC40French Guiana1262Gabon10Georgia759 6 Germany209,885132 Ghana54 1Gibraltar350Greece8,768 60 Greenland10Grenada200Guadaloupe, FOC20Guam2692Guatemala1,17018Guernsey170Guyana730Haiti910Honduras56018Hungary28337Iceland8,6502 India25,572898 Indonesia1,09710Iran, Islamic Republic3,672147Iraq2,86840Ireland3,18922 Isle Of Man750Israel4,33075 Italy3,593188 Jamaica1496Japan11,636108 Jersey2340Jordan3,03316Kazakhstan170Kenya4170Kiribati40Korea, North50 47 Republic of Korea (South)108,234170 Kosovo9810 Kuwait8622 27Kyrgyzstan611Laos2422 Latvia5724 Lebanon18385 Lesotho650Libya2231 Liechtenstein130Lithuania6814 Luxembourg3332Macau2,6252Macedonia2600 14Madagascar877 3 Malawi40Malaysia12,210 77Maldives25 1Malta7185Marshall Islands1151Martinique, FOC30Mauritius698Mexico67,982823Micronesia790Moldova1,02417 Monaco36 0Mongolia1,07326 Montenegro119 2 Montserrat210Morocco2,775 38 Mozambique1012Myanmar680N. Mariana Islands60Namibia721Nauru80Nepal112 1Netherlands1,47351 Neth. Antilles, Curacao**80Neth. Antilles, Sint Maarten20New Caledonia, FOC120New Zealand3,19822Nicaragua2,17211Nigeria2 0Norway***12,654 29Oman6,029 30 Pakistan121 10Palau460Palestinian Territories1,58222 Panama78711Papua New Guinea120Paraguay85552Peru9,003 205 Philippines5,21230Poland2,024 116 Portugal166,922 58 Puerto Rico908 49Qatar5508Republic of the Congo21 0Romania5,421 42Russia24,299 580 Rwanda331 0Saint Kitts62 Saint Lucia551Saint Maarten20Saint Vincent170Samoa1382San Marino5 0Sao Tome & Principe412Saudi Arabia14,532 97 Serbia520 47Seychelles330Singapore1,21719Slovakia955 25 Slovenia990 13Solomon Islands4 1Somalia20South Africa12,64293Spain22,379 256Sri Lanka422 23 Sudan241Suriname1382Swaziland50Sweden2,13020 Switzerland11,210 9 Syria432 127 Taiwan5,47435 Tajikistan160Tanzania677 1Thailand29,886191Timor-Leste60Tonga201Trinidad & Tobago2115Tunisia1200 15 Turkey12,316 507 Turks & Caicos44 0Tuvalu230Uganda251 0Ukraine57,862 213 United Arab Emirates1256United Kingdom27,826303 United States of America111,324 4,869Uruguay55033Vanuatu30Venezuela1,973121Viet Nam11,08352 Virgin Islands (US)80 1West Bank & Gaza Strip??Yemen5,038 25Zambia7260Zimbabwe1,3180Total1,562,04916,665 <center>-As of 1/05/10</center> Cumulative figures are subject to revision Abbreviations: UKOT: United Kingdom Overseas Territory FOC: French Overseas Collectivity OT: Overseas Territory Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao **: 3 confirmed cases: The three confirmed cases are crew members of a cruise ship. They did not leave the boat during their illness nor during the 24 hours preceding the onset of symptoms. Norway***: 7 confirmed cases are cruise ship crew and passengers. Cases:_115431__Deaths:10837">Estimated number of cases and deaths in the US*: Cases: 115431 Deaths:10837 *Cumulative, plus CDC estimates of unreported cases As of 1/14/10US Case Counts and fatality numbers by state -StateCasesDeathsAlabama2,45339Alaska46012Arizona8,545140Arkansas15420California10,031 470 Colorado1,55059Connecticut5,194 30Delaware3816 District of Columbia541Florida3,636187 Georgia886 41 Guam3382Hawaii2,22111Idaho1,16522 Illinois4,41686 Indiana31737Iowa73940 Kansas1,20126Kentucky2,042 37Louisiana1,87641Maine2,22018Maryland1,28441 Massachusetts1,91229Michigan3,16676 Minnesota2,17460 Mississippi1,27914Missouri151511 Montana94919Nebraska43014Nevada2,43736New Hampshire7229 New Jersey1,41440 New Mexico30850 New York2,738157North Carolina63881 North Dakota6503 Ohio22733Oklahoma23740 Oregon1,10575 Pennsylvania10,93475 Puerto Rico90849Rhode Island20313Samoa, American851South Carolina1,63441 South Dakota2,08123Tennessee1,16350 Texas11,403203 Utah98844Vermont404 3Virgin Islands801Virginia32735 Washington65891 West Virginia1,21420 Wisconsin9,55550 Wyoming72510Total115,43110,837 <center>-As of 1/14/10 *Numbers are likely under reported, see information above about CDC's new estimates. According to the CDC: "To prevent the spread of antiviral resistant virus strains, CDC reminds clinicians and the public of the need to continue hand and cough hygiene measures for the duration of any symptoms of influenza, even while taking antiviral medications." Taking precautions is a responsibility we all share. Protect yourself and others by getting a vaccination and by using proper hygiene. Visit Flu.gov to learn how you can help promote public awareness. See additional information in the related questions below for virus prevention techniques. See the CDC link below for state by state information from each state's health department. For a weekly report from the CDC with charts and graphs and lots of interesting data, see the related link below in related link section.A link to the CDC Novel H1N1 Influenza Information in Spanish is provided in links below as well as a link to a full listing of the other languages in which the CDC information is available. Mexico
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Medication and Drugs

How do you treat a Lamictal rash without stopping the medication?

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Short , you cant without a certain degree of risk. The best remedy for allergic reactions (which is what the lamictal rash is) (without going to the hospital)is prednisone along with benadryl. However, you cannot stay on the drug while taking these. These are given to end the allergic reaction. If you take more lamictal it will make the rash worse and put you at high risk for Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. This is potentially fatal. Whatever you are taking lamictal for, death would be much worse so give it up for now. Even though I got the rash and had to stop, now I'm back on it. My doctor and I had to start taking it in super low doses and work agonizingly slowly up to higher doses. But I'm back on it. Perhaps you can do the same with your doctor. If anyone takes Lamictal for Bi-polar, check with your "Doc" about valproic acid. Son's pediatrician said to put hydrocortozone on it. (A couple days later (a raised dosage later) he developed small round blisters (water filled) on his legs and I noticed that the skin on his feet (around toes) and palms of his hands was peeling off. We called the neurologist again and she said to take him off the medication immediately.) There is a really good psychiatrist (Dr. Phelps) who has about one hundred or so pages on the net about various bi-polar meds, what types to take, the reactions to expect, etc. Also, go onto the site entitled "Crazy Meds". The author has a number of afflictions and gives you the low down on most meds along with the not so heard of reactions/allegies. It's fabulous. I ramped up from 25mg to 200. at 200 I started having a sandpaper/orange-peel looking rash but mostly on the left side of my face, left leg, etc. It is eased somewhat with 1% hydrocortisone cream but dropping down to 100 until the Dr. can figure out what to do. ALL my medical books say a rash from Lamictal can be very serious and stopping the medication is the only treatment for the rash. ALSO, the doctor should be notified IMMEDIATELY and be made aware of the rash. The doctor will probably discontinue the medication. Always stop taking the medication when you get a rash, since the reaction continues for several days until the medicine is gone from the system. Benedryl is a good thing to take to help alleviate the symptoms. But, as stated above, always contact your doctor, especially for meds that treat chronic conditions. My I think SKIN CAP. The product for the treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases for external use only. The active substance - zinc nutritional - has antimicrobial and anti fungal activity. There is a bacteriologist impedes reproduction of bacteria.
Asked in Health, Conditions and Diseases, Blood, Immune System

What should a normal white cell blood count be?

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White blood cell count (WBC). The number of white blood cells in a volume of blood. Normal range varies slightly between laboratories but is generally between 4,300 and 10,800 cells per cubic millimeter (cmm). This can also be referred to as the leukocyte count and can be expressed in international units as 4.3 - 10.8 x 109 cells per liter.
Asked in Pregnancy Symptoms, Conditions and Diseases, Cramping During Pregnancy, Diarrhea

Are diarrhea and period-like cramping signs of pregnancy?

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No. Both are not signs of pregnancy. You do the urine pregnancy to diagnose the pregnancy. You do the ultrasound examination to to confirm the duration of the pregnancy. That will also confirm the location of the pregnancy inside the uterus. ( At times it can be in the fallopian tube.)
Asked in Health, Conditions and Diseases, Mosquitoes

How do mosquitoes spread diseases?

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Mosquitos feed on blood. When they bite they inject some fluids into the site to keep the blood from clotting (and which later cause the itchy hive). Some infections, such as malaria, can get into the mosquito when it drinks the blood of an infected person; the germ migrates to the glands that produce the anticoagulant, and then is injected into the blood of the next person bitten. The mosquito is a vector for many diseases. Malaria, dengue and yellow fever are spread like this by mosquitoes.
Asked in Menstruation, Conditions and Diseases

Does an illness make your period late?

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Some illnesses can in some people, especially those illnesses that involve the endocrine system and hormone production, such as diabetes. If you have other symptoms and have a late period, you may need to have an exam by your gynecologist.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Gay Lesbian and Bisexual, Public Speaking

Is there any treatment for being gay?

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No, there is no "cure" for homosexuals. But there's no problem in being so, either. Homosexuality is not an illness or disease. A long time ago foolish people thought it was, but doctors and psychiatrists agree that it is a normal part of the human condition. The Exodus Foundation, which set itself up to change gay people to straight, has recently disbanded itself, apologised for all the harm it has done, and said that it never had any success in changing people's orientation. Millions of people all over the world are homosexual. Many famous people have been and are homosexual. There are gay doctors, prime ministers, cleaners, teachers, painters, singers, bus drivers, police. Don't be afraid of other people's bullying opinions. Think for yourself! The solution: Accept it as the gift it is and be happy & proud. You aren't "common" like most everyone else, you are different and outside the box. Use that status to see the world from a slightly different perspective and glean insights not generally available to all those poor "regular" folk who have most of their lives already planned for them. Take advantage of your difference to help you see the world a little better. Have fun, ignore those who don't understand and show their anger and shallow thinking. But foremost: like yourself as you are.
Asked in Health, Conditions and Diseases, Rashes, Skin Disorders

What does a Lamictal rash look like?

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Most people who are allergic to sulfa based medicationss are also allergic to Lamictal. The reactions vary from blisters in the mouth to busted eyeball capillaries, to a very serious SJS or TENS reaction. Pain in the ankles and the joints feeling like glass is inside of them are also symptoms, and the sufferer is often prescribed other medications for conditions which simply do not exist. If you take Lamictal, be on the lookout as the side effects are as violent as the bi-polar condition itself. Most people start to show signs of side effects within 10 days of the dosage.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Autism, Symptoms, Toddlers

What are the symptoms of autism for toddlers?

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The simplest identifier is they do not turn their head when their name is called. Other normal babies look up from what they are doing when their name is called; autistics don't. When my child was born he would not even open his eyes to look at us. He sucked on his hand and hummed from the moment he was born. As the weeks and months passed he displayed behavior that was different from other children. He never anticipated that food was coming. Typical babies stop crying when you pick them up to feed or change them because they learn that care is coming. My first two anticipated that care was coming. My autistic child did not. When he was a toddler he did not grip when I held him as my first two did. He was dead weight. From the time he very small,as young as four months, he did not like switching from long sleeves to short. He avoided eye contact from the time he was born. Typical children seek eye contact. We felt that he did not need us in any emotional way like our first two did. He was very content with himself except to be fed and changed. He hummed himself to sleep from the time he was a few months old. He never seemed to take information in by observing. Everything we taught him had to be hand over hand. AUTISM is also called "Autism Spectrum" because someone with autism can be highly intelligent and author books on autism, or they can be severely disabled and need total care. And everywhere in between. Some early symptoms can be early speech, then not a word thereafter. Other symptoms include lack of eye contact, lack of affection (hugging them is actually "painful",) "flipping or flapping" their hands or objects, crying and being self abusive, obsessed with certain objects or activities, repetitive behaviors, not meeting "normal" milestones, odd eating rituals (will eat only 3-4 food items) and many other behaviors. There is no magic cure. Do some research, love your child and work to have them achieve what "professionals" say they will never do. On a recent course I learnt that a severally autistic child lives completely in their own world. they are usually unaware of their surroundings and people are just objects. They learn to 'use' people to get what ever it is they need but they do not usually form any type of bond. There is little eye contact and they be obsessive with objects. some autistic children can speak, other will not, but as a parent you may be able to teach your own method of communication, so that it is easier for the child to 'communicate' their needs and for you to understand them. An autistic child needs to have a very structured routine. They only feel safe when they know what is coming next. When learning a new routine it may be useful to carry out the same procedure many many times in different rooms as autistic children do not generalise (they dont take what they have learnt to any other place other than the place it was learnt in). establish routines and stick to them. do not introduce new things until complete familiarity has been establised Be patient, improvements will happen, really hope that this helps. I feel that the above answer is very misleading. There are degrees of Autism from mild or high functioning to severe. And yes there is no "magical Cure" but a child can recover. Children with Autism do not make eye contact, but some of them do show emotion and some do develop language. My personal belief is the some children with Austim have been injured by a variety of factors in there environment. For example, with my child it was partly genetics, he was born with a compromised immune system, then he had RSV Virus as an infant, he was given too many antibiotics as a baby for various ear infection to the point where he bled out of his colon and the vacines were the final attack on his system. Basically, like a computer, he crashed and his systems (primarily his brain function and nervous system) just couldn't take any more. My baby was saying some words at 6 months , he was making eye contact and pointing at objects. At 18 months however, the language disappeared as did the eye contact, he was ritualistic and repetative For instance, he loved anything that spun and could sit and spin objects for hours. Ceiling fans facinated him. His twin brother was right on target and so I became frantic when in my heart I new what was going on. I was devasted when I got the diagnosis but determined not to let him stay this way. First he began intense therapy of about 30 hours a week of ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis - this is a miracle worker), Speech and Occupational Therapy. I started to research and read everything I could and found out about special diets such as the gluten free / caesin free diet. This did not work for my son (it doesn't work for every child and its a miracle with some children). I learned about vitamins, probiotics and supplements. I started him on supplements as soon as I could and this was the turning point for my son. Amongst the supplements that I gave him, I purchased this really expensive juice called Mon Avie which has antioxidants and phytonutrients (the original formula) and saw subtle improvement. Then I started him on DMG and Acidophilus and saw some pretty significant change. I am going to try a vitamin supplement now called Super Nuthera from Kirkman Labs (they will happily guide you and answer questions). I also want to start methyl B12 vitamin strips. One thing at a time. Today he is a happy vibrant 3 year old who attends a typical nursery school with some support which we hope will not be needed soon. He talks and has an amazing personality.