1. Jews were banned from holding public office.
2. The various countries in Christendom were ordered (or urged - there is some disagreement about this) to make Jews wear a distinctive badge (such as a red or yellow star).
John Hancock was a prominent merchant in Boston, known best by the people of the time as a smuggler, mainly of tea. He was admired by many, but his biggest accomplishments were in what he did as a patriot: aiding the Sons of Liberty, particularly Samuel Adams, and later becoming the governor of Massachusetts.
It was a monarchy in ancient times. Today is a parlimentary republic.
In the earliest era, the Hebrews consisted of family-groups (clans; tribes) led by patriarchs. Later, during the three centuries of the Judges, individual Judges occasionally unified the people in war against some common enemy.
During the four centuries of the monarchy, the Israelites were led by three distinct people or groups (See also Deuteronomy ch.17-18.)
The king conducted the nation and made decisions in most national matters but was not necessarily one of the leading sages.
The Sanhedrin (court of Sages) was the final authority on Torah-matters.
The Kohen Gadol conducted the observances in the Holy Temple, together with the assistance of the rest of the Kohanim and Levites (Leviticus ch.21, Numbers ch.8 and 18).
Antiochus Epiphanes 1V
Georgia (US State)
Jews came to Georgia for peaceful lives and economic betterment.
Georgia (Eurasian Country)
The Jews arrived in Georgia because of the Jewish Diaspora migrations out of the Land of Israel and some Jews settled in what would become Georgia. In addition there were some Khazarian Jews that joined these small communities around 800-900 years later. There are very few Jews left in Georgia.
As Ezra opened the Torah to read, they all stood (Nehemiah 8:5).
Contrary to popular belief the mosaic law took great care to look out for women. Men by number may have had more "rights" but thats aside the point women were well cared for for the most part, and in ordinary times always had everything they needed taken care of them. The israelite culture why by and large a familistic culture, as man near eastern cultures of its time were. Their laws namely reflected the values of the people, protecting and propagating house, hearth, and healthy offspring.
No one, not even the king, was above the law.
To speakers of Hebrew and Yiddish, non-Jews are referred to politely as "Goyim".
The word is Hebrew, and means "nations". Since the People of Israel are one nation, it would follow that any non-Jew would be of the "Other Nations".
To speakers of English, non-Jews are referred to as "non-Jews" or "Gentiles".
The word is English, and means "those who are not Jews".
Since 1945-46, the most commonly quoted figure for the total number of Jews killed has been an estimate of approximately six million. This figure, first given at the Nuremberg Tribunal, has been broadly confirmed by later research.
The Holocaust commemoration center, the Yad Vashem Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, comments:
There is no precise figure for the number of Jews killed in the Holocaust. The figure commonly used is the six million established by the Nuremberg Tribunal in 1946 and repeated later by Adolf Eichmann, a senior SS official. Most research confirms that the number of victims was between five and six million. Early calculations range from 5.1 million (Professor Raul Hilberg) to 5.95 million (Jacob Leschinsky). More recent research, by Professor Yisrael Gutman and Dr. Robert Rozett in the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, estimates the Jewish losses at 5.59-5.86 million, and a study headed by Dr. Wolfgang Benz presents a range from 5.29-6.2 million. The main sources for these statistics are comparisons of prewar censuses with postwar censuses and population estimates. Nazi documentation containing partial data on various deportations and murders is also used. We estimate that Yad Vashem currently has somewhat more than four million names of victims that are accessible.
Raul Hilberg, in the third edition of his ground-breaking three-volume work, The Destruction of the European Jews, estimates that 5.1 million Jews died during the Holocaust. This figure includes "over 800,000" who died from "Ghettoization and general privation"; 1,400,000 who were killed in "Open-air shootings"; and "up to 2,900,000" who perished in camps. Hilberg estimates the death toll in Poland at "up to 3,000,000". Hilberg's numbers are generally considered to be a conservative estimate, as they typically include only those deaths for which some records are available, avoiding statistical adjustment. British historian Martin Gilbert used a similar approach in his "Atlas of the Holocaust", but arrived at a number of 5.75 million Jewish victims, since he estimated higher numbers of Jews killed in Russia and other locations.
One of the most authoritative German scholars of the Holocaust, Wolfgang Benz of the Technical University of Berlin, cites between 5.3 and 6.2 million Jews killed in Dimension des Völkermords (1991), while Yisrael Gutman and Robert Rozett estimate between 5.59 and 5.86 million Jewish victims in the Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust (1990).
There were about 9.4 million Jews in the territories controlled directly or indirectly by the Nazis. (Some uncertainty arises from the lack of knowledge about how many Jews there were in the Soviet Union). The 6 million killed in the Holocaust thus represent about 64% of these Jews. Of Poland's 3.3 million Jews, over 90 percent were killed. The same proportion were killed in Latvia and Lithuania, but most of Estonia's Jews were evacuated in time. In Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands and Yugoslavia, over 70 percent were killed. More than 50 percent were killed in Belgium, Hungary and Romania. It is likely that a similar proportion were killed in Belarus and Ukraine, but these figures are less certain. Countries with notably lower proportions of deaths include Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Italy and Norway. Finally, of the 750,000 Jews in Germany and Austria in 1933, only about a quarter survived. Although many German Jews emigrated before 1939, the majority of these fled to Czechoslovakia, France or the Netherlands, from where they were later deported to their deaths.
The number of people killed at the major extermination camps is estimated as follows:
Auschwitz-Birkenau: 1.4 million; Belzec: 500,000; Chelmno: 152,000; Majdanek: 78,000; Maly Trostinets: 65,000; Sobibór: 250,000; and Treblinka: 870,000.
This gives a total of over 3.3 million; of these, 90% are estimated to have been Jews. These seven camps alone thus accounted for half the total number of Jews killed in the entire Nazi Holocaust. Virtually the entire Jewish population of Poland died in these camps.
In addition to those who died in the above extermination camps, at least half a million Jews died in other camps, including the major concentration camps in Germany. These were not extermination camps, but had large numbers of Jewish prisoners at various times, particularly in the last year of the war as the Nazis withdrew from Poland. About a million people died in these camps, and although the proportion of Jews is not known with certainty, it was estimated to be at least 50 percent. Another 800,000 to 1 million Jews were killed by the Einsatzgruppen in the occupied Soviet territories (an approximate figure, since the Einsatzgruppen killings were frequently undocumented). Many more died through execution or of disease and malnutrition in the ghettos of Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia and Hungary before they could be deported.
The Jewish population of England, which had been living in England at least from the time of the Norman Conquest and likely since Roman times, were expelled in 1290 by a decree of Edward I of England. Before that, many were killed in pogroms.
Jewish people were not allowed back into England until the mid 17th century.
The alleged battle of Jericho involving Joshua reported in the Old Testament did not occur as the city site was unoccupied at the time.
bc they could never find a land far from YOUR POP.
It inspired a movement aimed at creating an independent state for Jews from around the world called Zionism.
At that time of Abraham the Hebrew, the area where he lived was full of pagan cults; they were polytheistic, worshiping multiple deities. Abraham was the first to advance the idea of ethical monotheism: the worship of One God, and the appropriate ethical code of conduct.
Judaism differed from other ancient religions in the following ways:1) It was the only religion in which God spoke to the entire assembled nation (Exodus ch.19) of over two million people.
2) It made a complete break from the surrounding idolatry. Their monotheism (belief in One God) set the Jews apart because other ancient nations did not share it. We've heard (for example) of Greek mythology and Roman mythology. What not everyone is aware of is that idolatry tended to go hand in hand with cruel, licentious and excessive behavior, since the caprices which were narrated concerning the pagan gods were adopted as an excuse to imitate those types of behavior.
(See: cruelties of the polytheists)
Compare that to God, who reveals His attributes in the Torah as wise, kind, holy, and pure. God is One, so the command to imitate His attributes (Deuteronomy 8:6) was (and is) a straightforward matter once one is even minimally familiar with the Torah.
Accordingly, Judaism was:
3) The only ancient religion in which a large percentage of its adherents were literate and scholars.
4) It was the only religion in which the people were ruled by God, with no need for a king, for several centuries (see Judges 8:23 and 1 Samuel 8:4-7).
5) The concept of morality was also the work of the Hebrews' religion, including the dignity and value of a person. It is the responsibility of the community to support the widow, the orphan, the poor, and the stranger passing through.
6) Under the law of Judaism, everyone had recourse to the courts. A child, widow, wife, poor person, etc., could initiate legal action against any citizen to redress perpetrated harm. Compare this to those societies in which (at most) only mature, land-owning males had rights.
7) Government is accountable to a higher authority. In other ancient societies, the monarch was all-powerful. Among the Israelites, however, the king was under the constant scrutiny of the Divinely-informed prophets, who didn't hesitate to castigate him publicly for any misstep in the sight of God.
And, other than for the crime of rebellion, the king couldn't punish any citizen by his own decision. He was obligated by the Torah-procedures like everyone else (Talmud, Sanhedrin 19a).
8) A robber repays double to his victim, or works it off. Unlike in many other ancient societies, in Judaism debtors are not imprisoned or harmed. They are made to sell property and/or work to repay what they owe. Compare this to the Roman practice by which anyone could accuse a man of owing them money and the debtor could be killed (Roman Twelve Tables of Law, 3:10).
It is important to note that every one of the above existed in Judaism thousands of years earlier than in other nations. Here's just one example: Infanticide was practiced in classical European nations until Judaism and its daughter-religions put a stop to it.
On the contrary, the Israelites pioneered in nottreating women as they were being treated elsewhere.
See also the Related Link.
Link: Criticisms against Judaism
They were relegated to the profession of usury because they couldnt own land or take part in almost all professions so they had to be usurors. So very very often Jews would lend people money and when they couldnt pay it back in time, they killed the Jews that lent them the money. This was the cause of countless murders and pogroms. It also led them to be kicked out of France by Louis IX and SO thus the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews are greedy and they run finance which became popular in the middle ages and endures to this day. Also, many catholic countries expelled Jews such as Spain and Portugal, unless they would convert to Christianity. The conspiracy theory of blood libel was also enduring.
1) Attacks by foreign nations. This occurred repeatedly (Judges ch.4, ch.6, ch.11; 1 Samuel ch.4, and numerous other occasions). 2) Internal strife (1 Kings ch.12 and other passages).
3) Occasional famine (such as Joel ch.1 and 2 Kings 4:38).
4) Religious backsliding, which (as the Prophets had warned) eventually led God to allow the First Temple to be destroyed by the Babylonians. (See: Destruction and diaspora)
The experiences of the Israelites in the Holy Land reflected their relationship with God. When they obeyed God, the Land was fertile and peaceful. When they began disobeying Him, the Land vomited them out and lost its fertility (Leviticus 26).
The Patriarchs and their family lived in the land of Israel (Canaan) for 220 years. The era from Joshua until the First Destruction (including the Judges and Kings) was 850 years. The Second Temple era was, according to traditional chronology, another 420 years (not 586), which included the Hasmonean dynasty. That's a total of 1490 years.
After the Second Destruction, there were thousands of Jews who remained in Israel (Judea; Palestine) throughout the Talmudic era and beyond (see for example the Talmud, Sanhedrin 17b). They were the majority of Palestine's population well into the fourth century, with records attesting to at least 43 Jewish communities, most of them in the Galilee and Jordan valley. After that, there were still Yeshivas in Israel with at least some thousands of community-members.
By 600 CE, Jews had come to the Near East, Middle East, Levant, Persia, South Asia, southern Russia, Mediterranean Europe, and North Africa. The Kaifeng Jewish community, however, was likely founded in the 12th or 13th century.
Rabbi Yehoshua ben Hananiah is the seventh most frequently mentioned sage in the Mishnah. He was active in the half-century following the destruction of the Temple. Yehoshua is the Hebrew/Aramaic form of the name Joshua, and Jesus is the Greek form of that name. There are also a number of Joshuas in the Hebrew Bible. The name Yehoshua remains a not-uncommon given name among Jews to this day.
I believe this is the convenant that God made with Abraham to make of Abraham's family a great nation.
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