Homo Habilis

Believed to be the first hominids to create and use tools. These creatures lived on the African continent from about 1.5 million years ago until around 1 million years ago. Homo Habilis possibly lived alongside Australopithecus. However, their larger bodies, and superior brains would have given them a clear survival advantage.

2,054 Questions

What does homo habilis mean in English?

Technically it's already in English, but the definition is handy man.

What type of early humans appeared first?

The earliest potential hominin is Sahelanthropus tchadensis, dated to around 7 million years ago.

Why do so many men like innocent women?

becos they are look sexy and they are new package for people

Could Harpo Marx talk?

Yes, but Harp Marx was a softly spoken man. Since he didn't sound like the other brothers, they decided that in the act he would be silent.

What is a homo?

Homo is short for homosexual, or gay.

It means someone who is sexually attracted to the same sex.

The short form, homo, is considered derogatory and rude.

What does it mean when someone says no homo?

When someone has said some thing which makes them appear gay they say NO HOMO to say no im not a homosexual. EXAMPLE- a guy saying "wow that guys penis is huge! NO HOMO." or a girl saying "can i touch your breasts" to another girl.

This phrase might also be used when requesting non-homogenized milk, or indicating that there is no more homogenized milk.

Can men cook?

Well, yes. As a matter of fact, there are more males chefs and professional cooks than there are women. According to a study at the link below:

"An overwhelming majority of the more experienced kitchen positions are held by men: 89% of Executive Chefs, 82% of Sous Chefs, 66% of Line Cooks, and 60% of Management positions surveyed are male. The only place in the kitchen where women hold a higher percentage of positions is in the pastry department. 80% of Bakers are female, 77% of Pastry Chefs surveyed are female, and 84% of the cooks that work in pastry beneath them are women as well."

What is the history of man's evolution?

It is the opinion of many that man did not evolve.

AnswerSee links for a good start. If you have some extra money send away for a genome kit and see what your genes tell you about your ancestry. Evolution is a body of accumulated knowledge and the theories that have been developed to explain that knowledge. It is a work in progress, and work is continually being done. The best approach is to remain open-minded about this knowledge, and also about other ways to explain the existence and diversity of life on earth. Study and think, and consider science to be a process that is sometimes messy and confusing. Science does not happen the way it may be presented in most texts, with all the facts, experiments and conclusions lined up neatly with review questions and class projects carefully outlined. It is human, dangerous and indispensible.

What did homo habilis use for shelter?

Well, I've don't some research, so I have found that the homo habilis early humans were usually on the move to find food, so they did not stay in one place for very long. But, when they did need to make or find shelter, they used cliffs, hills, and fallen trees. But you might be wondering, "couldn't they have used caves for shelter?" Well, they didn't use caves because there were animals in there, possibly dangerous, like saber toothed cats. Well, I hope this information helped you with your research! :)

What does homo- mean?

As a prefix, from the Greek, homo- means alike, similar, all the same, for example:

  • A homogeneous solution is one that has the same consistency throughout.

As a Latin word, used in science (especially zoology), homo means man (ie. homo sapiens). For example:

  • Homo Erectus means upright man; the first ape to walk straight

Is that true that men like BBW in many countries On forums I saw a topic that men in lots of countries love BBWs. Is it true that fullfigured women are so attractive to men?

Of course--the same way some people like shorter people, some people prefer a certain hair color or even a certain ethnicity. Some cultures prefer women (and men) to have certain physical attributes; there are even cultures who find the "supermodel" type of female to be unappealing.

Most people generally have a physical 'type' that they personally find desirable; not everyone wants a thin white person.

How can you build a relationship with your mother if you are a boy who likes to dress up in women's clothing?

Well, this might be a challenge or to your surprise it could be easier than you think. I am sure your Mother already has an inkling that you might have been doing this for a while. (You do not say how old you are so this could change my answer). I am guessing that you are still living at home (under the age of 20?). With all the info and "new" accepting attitudes surrounding us today, I am certain you could show your Mom an article about cross dressing and then start "fishing" for her opinion on the subject. Most people seem "harsh" when first confronted with a trait that is not deemed "normal" but.... most people also warm to any character trait that makes the other person HAPPY. This is a fact. You will be accepted. Start talking. Risk being yourself.There is a huge amount of support available. The reason you will get though this is because of UNCONDITIONAL love... From your Mom to you!.

What did the homo habilis carve and paint?

Homo Habilis did NOT invent carving and painting. The first hominid to do so was Homo Sapiens Sapiens.

What is homo habilis?

A species of the genus Homo, which lived from 1.9 to 1.5 million years ago at the beginning of the Pleistocene. They were possibly 5ft tall and 100 pounds. They mad stone and bone tools. There is no evidence yet of them speaking.
Homo habilis is a well-known, but poorly defined species. The specimen that led to the naming of this species (OH 7) was discovered in 1960, by the Leakey team in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. This specimen and its designation was the subject of much controversies up through the 1970s. The material was found in the same region where A. boisei had previously been found, and many researchers of the time did not fully accept that the material was sufficiently different from that material (or maybe A. africanus) to denote a new species. Louis Leakey was convinced that this was the Olduvai toolmaker he had spent his life looking for, and placed this as a direct human ancestor, with H. erectus a dead-end side-branch.

The specimen was subjected to intense study by the multidisciplinary team of Louis Leakey, John Napier, and Phillip Tobias. They placed the material as different from penecontemporary australopithecines due to the teeth, which fell outside the known range of A. africanus, with very large incisors. Also, the large brain size and shape of the hand suggested a closer affinity with Homo. In January 1964, the team announced the new species Homo habilis. The name was suggested by Raymond Dart, and means "handy man," in reference to this hominids supposed tool making prowess.

Leakey believed that habilis was a direct human ancestor, with erectus out of the picture. While H. habilis is a generally accepted species, they opinion that it was a direct human ancestor seems to be in question. There are now at least two species of early Homo (whether habilis and rudolfensis or an undescribed species) living prior to 2.0 myr. In addition, H. erectus (which is almost universally accepted as a direct human ancestor) continues to be pushed further back into the paleontological record, making it possible that it is the first Homo ancestor of modern humans.

Other problems include that some people see KNM-ER 1813 as a near perfect erectus, except for its small brain and size. It could be an erectus that was at the small scale of a wide variation of traits, or it may belong to ergaster,which some believe to be the ancestor of erectus. The questions are far from solved, and new specimens are needed. Homo habilis may be a direct human ancestor, a dead-end side-branch that leads nowhere, an invalid species whose designated examples belong in other species, or Wolpoff may be right, and all these species are basically part of one highly variable widespread species.

Diagnostic Features

It is particularity hard to list the features of Homo habilis, because the specimens attributed to habilis(and the reasons the material was placed there) vary widely. The species is a mishmash of traits and specimens, whose composition depends upon what researcher one asks. The simplest way to describe the general features is to describe specimens that are generally considered habilis by most people, and list their relevant traits.

OH 7 is the type specimen of habilis, and the first material attributed to the species. The specimen consists of a nearly complete left parietal, a fragmented right parietal, most of the mandibular body (including thirteen teeth), an upper molar, and twenty-one finger, hand, and wrist bones. The remains belonged to a 12 or 13 year old male. The brain size attributed to this specimen varies, ranging from 590-710 cc. P. Tobias and G. von Koenigswald used three traits to set habilis apart, as a transitional species between A. africanus and H. erectus:

  • Expanded cranial capacity (relative to africanus).
  • Reduced postcanine tooth size.
  • The presence of a precision grip (determined from the hand bones present in OH 7), which provides the anatomical basis for tool-making.

General features of the specimen seems to support these three traits (whether or not it is transitional from africanus to erectus):

  • Larger cranial capacity (though very problematic). Tobias gives an estimate of 647 cc, Holloway gives an estimate of 710 cc, and Wolpoff has estimated it at 590 cc.
  • Molar megadontia is gone, with molars longer than they are wide.
  • The P3 is smaller and more asymmetric.
  • The P4 is much more similar to the P3.
  • Metacarpal 1 and trapezium is much less interlocked, which allowed more movement.
  • The distal phalanges have apical tuffs.

OH 8 - a fairly complete foot - was found nearby OH 7, and was initially determined to be from another individual. This was due to the fact that OH 7 was known to be from an adolescent around age 12, and the foot seemed to be of a more advanced age, due to the presence of arthritis in the specimen. However, the partially gnawed remains have arthritis due to a sustained injury, and the actual age runs close to OH 7, making it likely they are from the same individual (many researchers consider this part of OH 7 now, rather than OH 8). The remains show clear signs that this was an obligate biped, including:

  • Presence of digital shortening.
  • Enlargement of the hallux, as well as being fully abducted.
  • Alignment of digits 2-5.
  • Thickened metatarsal shaft with a humanlike cross-sectional shape.
  • A fully developed double arch to the lower surface.
  • Mechanically set up for efficient weight transmission at the ankle.

While it shows definite obligate bipedalism, the specimen also has a marked tubercule for the tibialis posterior muscle, an invertor of the foot that could be useful for climbing. So it is possible that while this individual was an obligate biped, it still spent some time in the trees (which goes well with paleoecological evidence that suggests that various hominid species spent most of their time in marginal woodland environments). From the talus, H. McHenry calculated an estimated weight of 31.7 kg. Using the various estimated brain size, one gets brain/body weight ratios of:

Wolpoff: 590 cc brain = 1.86%

Tobias: 647 cc brain = 2.04%

Holloway: 710 cc brain = 2.24%

Even using the smaller brain estimate, this is one of the largest relative brain size for any male hominid up to the time period this individual lived (1.75 myr). When compared to primate allometry, the OH 7 brain size is at the top of the allometric expectations within non-human primates. This is a large brained specimen relative to its body size.

Another relatively complete habiline specimen is OH 13 - "Cinderella". This is a poorly preserved and fragmentary specimen of a 15-16 year old female habilis, dating to a little younger than 1.66 myr. This makes it one of the most (if not the most) recent habilis specimens known. The material consists of the mandible and the maxilla, several teeth, pieces of the cranial vault, and some postcranial elements, including a small piece of proximal ulna. This specimen (along with OH 16) were the object of much inaccurate brain size estimations, which originally lead to the two being classified as H. erectus. More recent estimates put the brain size at around 500 cc, and along with an estimated body size near that of AL 288-1, gives this specimen a relative brain/body weight ratio similar to OH 7.

The case of OH 16 is a tragic one. The specimen was discovered nearly complete near the end of a field day, so the position of the find was marked and roped off. The next morning the researchers were horrified to discover that a herd of cattle had charged through the area, and completely crushed it. Some of the specimen's features include:

  • Very large teeth (close to australopithecus in size).
  • An uncertain brain size, but probably larger than OH 7.
  • The individual was age 15-16 when they died.
  • The individual had very bad caries on one side of its jaws (very unusual in ancient specimens), which lead to differential chewing on the other side, causing it to develop a huge temporalis muscle on that side.
  • Cranial bone markedly thinner that erectus.
  • Dramatic differences in the supraorbital torus and the nuchal torus that distinguish it from erectus.

These features (the last two shared with OH 13) seem to indicate that the specimen is a habiline, and not an erectusspecimen, as was attributed by J. Robinson.

OH 24 ("Twiggy") is the most australopithecine-like of specimens attributed to H. habilis, and may be more highly correlated with A. africanus. The specimen was found completely fractured, and cemented together in a coating of limestone. R. Clarke was the researcher who went through the long and painful process of reconstruction, but over 100 small fragments could not be placed in the reconstruction. Hence, the specimen is extremely distorted, making an accurate estimate of its brain size very difficult, though Holloway has given an estimate of 590 cc (many researchers believe that number is too high). Several features caused this specimen to be placed in habilis, including:

  • Increased cranial capacity over australopithecines (though some doubt this estimate).
  • Less postorbital constriction.
  • Elongated molars.
  • Absence of postcanine megadontia.
  • Large front teeth relative to the postcanines.
  • A broad and short cranial base.
  • Anteriorly positioned foramen magnum.
  • Less convex and bulging zygomatics, and more vertically oriented.
  • A distinct maxillary notch.

While these features seem to support the notion that it is not an australopithecine, several other features do not support the habilis distinction. For example:

  • Lacks a salient anterior nasal spine.
  • Lacks broad nasal bones.
  • Lacks nasal bone peaking caused by the internasal angle.
  • Lacks the projection of the middle and top of the nose away from the face, shown by expanded and outward projecting maxillary bones to its side (i.e., maxillary pillar eversion).

While this specimen does not seem to be an australopithecine, it also does not seem to fit perfectly into the classic habilismold. Perhaps it fits more closely with rudolfensis, or an undefined penecontemporary species. Another option may be that the distorted reconstruction is blurring a clear species designation. For now, a clear designation is up in the air.

The last to discuss is OH 62. Publicized widely as "Lucy's Child" by Johanson, it is a very scrappy collection of 302 bone fragments. Portions of the maxilla (which permitted identification as habilis), parts of the femur, and upper limb bones. The entire specimen is problematic, and raises many questions as to sexual variation and behavior. The most controversial aspect of the specimen was the Johanson et al. calculation of a humero-femoral index of 95%. The material was far too sparse to calculate such an index, but even using their own estimated range of possible lengths for the incomplete femur, they should have computed an index quite close to the A.L. 288-1 value of 83.8%. It is unclear why Johanson et al. calculated the index in the manner they did, and it is generally not accepted in any form at all.

Homo habilis is a very complicated species to describe. No two researchers attribute all the same specimens as habilis, and few can agree on what traits define habilis, if it is a valid species at all, and even whether or not it belongs in the genus Homo or Australopithecus. Hopefully, future discoveries and future cladistic analyses of the specimens involved may clear up these issues, or at least better define what belongs in the species.

Where did Homo habilis live?

Eastern Africa

Edit: Excuse him. Homo Habilis lived in Eastern and Southern Africa (Kenya and Tanzania most often).

What food did homo erectus eat?

it depended were they lived but their menu included deer, horse, bear,

water buffalo, camel,and they also ate many kinds of plants.

What tools did early man have?

It depends on what sort of Early Man you're talking about. Most had primitive tools made of rocks, like stone knives, spears with stone tips, rounded rocks for grinding food, and possibly clay dishes or woven baskets depending on the group.

What is The difference between hetero and homo?

Hetero and Homo are Latin words.

Hetero means different and homo means same