monks and nuns provided various social services, such as tending the sick, providing charity for the poor, setting up for schools for children, and lodging travelers
It isn't possible. They are after all bishops. They have said a service before and they must have read something!!
The Feudal System which provided wealth and land to vassals, jobs for knights, and work for serfs.
Monks and nuns spread Byzantine influence through their missionary work.
The monks often were the medical help in an area and there were monks who spent their lives compiling books from ancient texts. The nuns ran nunneries and gave women a safe harbor when they had no place to go. Both the nuns and monks took in children that were abandoned by their parents. Monasteries and nunneries also took in travelers at night giving them a safe place to stay overnight.
They were treated with respect and it was illegal to hang a priest.
It recognized the right of kingdoms to practice Protestantism.
The survivors of the black plague demanded for more food, land, and money in exchnge for working in the lord's fields. Teh lord would agree, since he needed someone to grow the crop in the fields to raise money.Eventually, the serfs would get enough money to grant freedom. When the freedom is granted to a serf, he or she would go to the town and live there, getting a job in the town.
We cannot know for sure why Thomas Becket refused to leave the cathedral with the knights who came to get him. But from what I have read of Thomas Becket, I would guess it was because he was praying, and he was not about to stop praying just because four knights were threatening him with swords. The statements we get from the time indicate, in fact, that when they first struck him with the swords, wounding him, he continued praying.
Priests usually ate bread, water, fruit and soups.
The art was religious art displaying Christ, biblical figures and stories from the Bible. People couldn't read so the church had to tell them the Bible through stain glass, frescoes, and plays. The Roman Catholic Church was the only church and religion. It won't be until the Renaissance that other forms of religious groups will will form. Laws were passed by the church forbidding science and the threat of excommunication was always present. Great Catholic cathedrals were built throughout Europe and Rome was the center of the Catholic Church.
Describe features of in Manor House
The scientific revolution did not lead to a decrease in the power of the Catholic Church. First of all, the power of the Catholic Church is due solely to its' founder, which is God: Jesus Christ, and its guide, which is God: the Holy Spirit. Secondly, nearly everyone involved in the scientific revolution was a Catholic priest or monk doing research, and all of it was approved by the Church. Third, I believe that you have the scientific revolution confused with the Renaissance in which non-believers and Deists furthered the state as against the Church and led to a decrease in the temporal power of the Church.
APEX: The East-West Schism
Monks in monasteries during the middle ages were among the few, like the nobility, who could read and write. Because of this, most of the knowledge was kept restricted to that small sect of people. It wasn't until Johann Gutenberg invented the first printing press in the 1450's changed the situation so that knowledge was made available to everyone, and that was the main influence that spurred on the Age of Enlightenment.
A case can be made that monasteries almost single-handedly saved western civilization. After centuries of civil war and corruption the Roman Empire slipped away into history when Odoacer deposed the last Roman Emperor in 476AD. Barbarian hordes swept over the west and razed the last vestiges of this once mighty empire, squabbling over its territories and scattered riches. Europe entered what is commonly called "The Dark Ages".
Most major city centers lay in ruins, however, monasteries, because they were remote and hard to access, remained and within them were retained the culture and book knowledge lost everywhere else. Monks relentlessly copied and recopied Greek and Roman manuscripts as well as holy books, thus keeping the kernel of future civilization alive. The monasteries also served as the vanguard of future civilization, for when a monastery was founded, people naturally flocked around it to enjoy its spiritual and material benefits, and very often, this served as the nucleus of a budding town - not a few cities came out of such humble beginnings. Monasteries were often check points for travelers, forts in times of conflict, distribution centers in times of famine, hospitals in times of sickness, neutral grounds for conflicting parties to voice grievances and make pacts as well as being bastions of knowledge and skill.
Certain orders of monks were missionary in spirit and it was they who went out to conquer the barbarians with religion rather than the sword. Through a long organic process, monks actually were heavily responsible for making The Enlightenment possible by civilizing the barbarian tribes whose progeny, in forgotten centuries later, would ironically claim the Church was barbaric. If you ask a Catholic, they call the Dark Ages "The Golden Age of the Church" because the Church acted as the sole light in that dark time, and the monks played a huge role, both strong and resolute, in bringing Faith and civilization back from the brink of extinction in the west.
What is often forgotten is that monks preserved knowledge, were inventors of rudimentary machinery, many alcoholic beverages and types of cuisine, basic science, preserved language and knowledge, tutored pagan chieftains who would begin the royal lineage of kings and the lords of established realms, encouraged agriculture and land development, re-established Latin as a universal language and made connections with one another, thus laying the ground work for a new system of European unity. Reading and writing was not seen as it is today, but was as much a tool as a plane was to a carpenter and a plow to a farmer; the oral transmission of knowledge and traditions was the common way of doing things.
Centuries of struggling for basic survival culminated in a slow recovery that finally bore fruit: civilization gradually reemerged. With civilization came a new leisure class, one that would challenge kings as well as the Church, for though it did not have power or nobility, it had money. This leisure class wanted power and influence and its members desired to have access to and develop the knowledge and ideas the monks had been maintaining for centuries. The Church had established by this time public universities open to those whose discipline was for things of the mind, which usually meant nobles, the emerging middle class and religious. The middle class, with its drive to carve a spot for itself out of medieval Europe, introduced a new aggressive spirit, which manifested itself as humanism in intellectual circles. It rapidly expanded upon ideas and thinking and was quick to harness print in order to disseminate its views far and wide with great alacrity. This sudden influx developed into The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment came to despise the monks for their caution and seeming lack of enthusiasm to push into new ways of thinking and experimentation and it resented that they strove to temper it with their ponderous doctrine and moral considerations. It was ultimately a culture clash more than an issue of Faith, and ultimately, the monks were forgotten and sometimes killed in the revolutions that would later result. The Enlightenment was very much a bourgeois phenomenon, for it did not help the common man; farmers still farmed, tradesmen still plied their trade with very little of what we would call education.
For centuries, the monks coaxed civilization back from the ashes of the Roman Empire. Eventually, a new and safe society emerged that allowed for profitable trade and business, and the monks were discarded. These days, the monks are largely discredited, if they're even mentioned at all. The monks have stuck to their monasteries, as they had in centuries past and as they still do, bastions of the Faith and time capsules of knowledge should the west crumble again. To this day, however, the Enlightenment and its children have forgotten their roots in the ancient monasteries in Europe.
The church was able to gain wealth by collecting taxes.Roman Catholic AnswerAlthough there have been periods in history when the Church had a great influence of local economies, through the monasteries, which owed a great deal of land, through Bishops and Cardinals who set themselves up as local princes; the Church, itself, has never aimed for secular power but was only concerned, primarily, with the salvation of individuals. The Church's primary function in daily life: the preaching of the Gospel and the administration of the Sacraments, is, by definition, free. There is a very specific sin for charging money for these things: simony The name is taken from Simon in the New Testament who offered money to the apostles if they would give him their power through ordination.
They excersiced authority by being able to throw people out of the Christian Church
The missionaries were on Ireland and the monks were by a deprecate rule and IDs and ilks
Poeple did not understand the relationship between polutants and health. leading to major epidemics, industrial diseases, and alergys.
Some of the Pilgrim routes were specific roads that pilgrims travelled on, where the road itself was a thing to experience for religious reasons. The route from London to the Becket Shrine in Canterbury was of this type, as was the Way of St. James in Spain. Another pilgrimage routes of this type was the Via Dolorosa in Israel, though the specific path has changed through the ages. Another was St. Olav's Way, from Oslo to Trondheim, in Norway.
Some of the Pilgrim routes were simply the main roads between cities or shipping routes to a pilgrim destination. The answers below treat both types. There is a link below to a map of European Trade Routes.Answers pertaining to BritainOne of the main pilgrimage routes in Britain in medieval times was to Thomas a Becket's' shrine in Canterbury. Thomas a Becket was the archbishop of Canterbury, and was murdered by four knights who believed the king wanted him dead, just because he shouted some words. Thomas became a saint 3 years afterwards, and his shrine at Canterbury became a popular site for pilgrimages. More on BritainThomas Becket's shrine was the main route people went on, and the most popular as well, when he died he became very popular and have many visitors per day to come and visit his shrine. More on BritainThe oldest pilgrim destination in Britain is Holywell, in Wales. Other British pilgrim sites are St. Davids, Glastonbury, and St. Andrews. Answers pertaining to the ContinentThe most important pilgrimage route within continental Europe was El Camino de Santiago (The Way of St. James). The route wound through northern Spain, ending at the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, said to hold the skull of St. James. More on the ContinentSites in Italy included churches in Rome, including St. Peter's Basilica, and the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi. Other Italian destinations were Padua and Turin.
The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was an important destination in France. Other French destinations were several churches in Lourdes, Basilica of St. ThÃ©rÃ¨se of Lisieux, in Normandy, and the Cathedral of Chartres.
One site of importance was the Shrine of St. Olav in Trondheim, Norway. In this case, the specific road to the shrine, called St. Olav's Way, was an important route to travel.
In Germany, Cologne Cathedral was an important destination.
There were pilgrim destinations in nearly every country.Answers pertaining to the Holy LandThe Crusades were seen as Pilgrimages.
The earliest pilgrimages were to Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, the Sea of Galilee, Bethany, and other sites in the the Holy Land. These sites were the destinations of pilgrim from antiquity, and Roman Emperors and Empresses went on Pilgrimage to them. The routes to the Holy Land stretched across the Roman Empire and were often by sea.
There is a link to an article on this hymn below, but there were many others like it. I have also included a link to Hildegard of Bingen, a nun who wrote medieval music that is preserved and performed today. She was one of the earliest composers whose music was originally written in fully decipherable notation.
she wrote polyphonic melodies
Monks and nuns belonged to the Church, which was a separate class of society from all others. They were governed only by Church law, not by the king's law.
It was the foundation of everyday life in the middle ages. The Catholic church set the standards and rules of society. They taught that man was born in sin and the only way to get to heaven was to go through them. Since people couldn't read or write they depended on the church to teach them the right way to live and to tell them what the bible said. This made the church very powerful and the church became part of the government as well. It told kings what to do and how to do it. The church became very wealthy and powerful which made religion more important.
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