Pope Innocent III was pope from 1198 to 1216.
one of the benefits would be increased trade between Asia and Europe and i'm not sure bout the other one aha :/
One that has the job of collecting taxes from the people.
Matthew in the New Testament was a tax collector; up until joined with Jesus.
Zweihander could be one.
Fictional witches, are believed to be able to transform into owls. Normal bullets won't hurt them. Crossed bullets (bullets with a cross etched into them) however, are said to cause pain or death to these fictional witches. This mythos, would have you believe, witches are no joke. They are portrayed as deadly, fearless, cold blooded creatures.
By the way, these are dead witches from centuries back. Evil, pure demonic evil, they are fast and fly at night. Mexico is a perfect place for witches to go.
The historical witches of the Witch hunts, tended to be single disenfranchised people of an area, that lived outside of the "grace" of the Christian Church. The Inquisitions targeted heretics of all sorts, including, but not restricted to those accused of witchcraft. Many of the accused were not in fact practitioner. The Inquisition killed uncountable numbers of people, by torture, burning, drowning, drawing & quartering, flogging, crushing, dismemberment, and many forms of death too horrific to contemplate.
Modern day, real witches, are ordinary people. A witch can be either male or female, there is no gender specific name for us. FYI the word warlock is of Christian origin and was a derogatory term for someone (again male or female) who had broken their oath with God.
We tend to follow one of many spiritual paths which are generally, but not always, nature based. There are witches who practice without the spirituality, however, there are not as many of that kind of witches out there.
We are human, and no more evil or malicious than any other person on the planet. We die the same way anyone else dies, and it is murder to kill us.
Thomas Becket was born in Cheapside, a mercantile area of London.
He was the son of a man who sold cloth.
His mother and father came from different towns in Normandy.
His education, which included riding and manners, was provided by a friend of his father's.
He attended universities.
He went on missions to Rome for the Archbishop of Canterbury.
He was made Archdeacon at Canterbury Cathedral.
The Archbishop recommended him to the office of Lord Chancellor, to which King Henry II appointed him.
He was a good friend of the King, who made him Archbishop of Canterbury.
He was a bit too serious about religion for the king, and defended the authority of the Church when the king wanted to reduce it for his own benefit.
He was stubborn.
He was murdered by four knights who attacked him with swords as he prayed, during Vespers at Canterbury Cathedral.
Once every Century, on the centennial anniversary of his death, whoever has gone to sleep in the room over the main gate of St. Augustine's Abbey has been waked by the sound of a ghostly procession of monks carrying his body into the abbey to prepare it for burial. (You won't find this in the history books, but the locals say this is true.)
There is a secret society of three people who guard the secret of where the stone is that was covered by his blood and removed from the floor of the cathedral for safety. (More folk history.)
His shrine, at which he was buried, became the most important pilgrim destination in Britain.
1.hes a boy
2.he has hair
3.he has a mum or did
4.he has a dad or did
5.he has seen a girl
6.he has seen a boy
7.he has seen a door
8.he is called thomas
9.he has eyes
10.he has a mouth
1) Thomas Beckett was born in 1118 in Cheapside, London.
2) He was the archbishop of Canterbury in 1162.
3) He died on the 29th December 1170.
4)He was canonized by Pope Alexander, July 12, 1194.
5) He is also known as Thomas a Becket.
He was A friend of Thomas Becket
He died in December 29 in 1170
Thomas Becket Facts:
1.Born December 21st in 1118.
2.died December 29th in 1170
4.Also Known as: Thomas a Becket
5.Thomas a Becket was declared a martyr, and in 1173, he was canonized by Pope 6.Alexander on July 12, 1174
7.Thomas Becket was famous as: the Archbishop of Canterbury
8.Position: Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170
9.The monks were afraid that Becket's body might be stolen.
10.Becket's bones were moved to a new gold-plated and bejewelled shrine behind the high altar.
It isn't possible. They are after all bishops. They have said a service before and they must have read something!!
They were some of the largest and grandest buildings
Latin - but not classical Latin. Church Latin (also called Low Latin or Medieval Latin) was used throughout Europe during the medieval period, which meant that meetings (synods) of bishops, abbots and other Church officials from many different countries could be held in that universal language.
The powers of kings and emperors were limited in various ways. Very few kings of the Middle Ages attempted to assert unlimited power, and came too close usually met with trouble.
First of all, in some countries, such as Scotland and the Holy Roman Empire, the monarch did not come to the throne by inheriting it. These monarchs were elected by groups of powerful men who had their own agendas and who had things to demand in return for their vote. In the Holy Roman Empire, three of the seven electors were bishops, whose primary allegiance was not even to the emperor they elected, but to the pope.
Second, almost all of the medieval kings were limited by the Church, since the pope, and even bishops, had the power to excommunicate them, which freed anyone who owed them debts of honor from those debts. These debts included oaths of support and loyalty, and they included binding treaties. Without these, a king was in trouble, so kings were very reluctant to cross the Church. We have histories of a number who were excommunicated, including King John of England, but there were not all that many.
Some kings had charters they granted that had to be honored. A king who did not want to honor a charter could be excused from it by the pope, as King John was excused from honoring the Magna Carta, but it did not always work out the way he wanted.
Kings could also have other debts of honor. As a matter of practicality, the feudal hierarchy of the Middle Ages, which was based on oaths of mutual support, limited the power of monarchs by distributing power among the various members of the nobility. A king who alienated his vassals could find himself very alone.
Some kings were vassals of other kings. For example, the kings of England were theoretically vassals of the kings of France for their lands in France, though they were not for their lands in England. Kings of Scotland were vassals of the kings of England, for Scotland, until King Robert asserted independence.
they did it by being cool
The cut off contact with Japan A+
philosophy helps us to examine intellectual tools and also heps us to suggest alternative method of thinking. It also helps as a guiding principle to accomplish a life goal.......by ogunruku ayotunde babcock university
monks and nuns provided various social services, such as tending the sick, providing charity for the poor, setting up for schools for children, and lodging travelers
The Feudal System which provided wealth and land to vassals, jobs for knights, and work for serfs.
Monks and nuns spread Byzantine influence through their missionary work.
The monks often were the medical help in an area and there were monks who spent their lives compiling books from ancient texts. The nuns ran nunneries and gave women a safe harbor when they had no place to go. Both the nuns and monks took in children that were abandoned by their parents. Monasteries and nunneries also took in travelers at night giving them a safe place to stay overnight.
They were treated with respect and it was illegal to hang a priest.
The survivors of the black plague demanded for more food, land, and money in exchnge for working in the lord's fields. Teh lord would agree, since he needed someone to grow the crop in the fields to raise money.Eventually, the serfs would get enough money to grant freedom. When the freedom is granted to a serf, he or she would go to the town and live there, getting a job in the town.
We cannot know for sure why Thomas Becket refused to leave the cathedral with the knights who came to get him. But from what I have read of Thomas Becket, I would guess it was because he was praying, and he was not about to stop praying just because four knights were threatening him with swords. The statements we get from the time indicate, in fact, that when they first struck him with the swords, wounding him, he continued praying.
Priests usually ate bread, water, fruit and soups.
The scientific revolution did not lead to a decrease in the power of the Catholic Church. First of all, the power of the Catholic Church is due solely to its' founder, which is God: Jesus Christ, and its guide, which is God: the Holy Spirit. Secondly, nearly everyone involved in the scientific revolution was a Catholic priest or monk doing research, and all of it was approved by the Church. Third, I believe that you have the scientific revolution confused with the Renaissance in which non-believers and Deists furthered the state as against the Church and led to a decrease in the temporal power of the Church.
Monks in monasteries during the middle ages were among the few, like the nobility, who could read and write. Because of this, most of the knowledge was kept restricted to that small sect of people. It wasn't until Johann Gutenberg invented the first printing press in the 1450's changed the situation so that knowledge was made available to everyone, and that was the main influence that spurred on the Age of Enlightenment.
A case can be made that monasteries almost single-handedly saved western civilization. After centuries of civil war and corruption the Roman Empire slipped away into history when Odoacer deposed the last Roman Emperor in 476AD. Barbarian hordes swept over the west and razed the last vestiges of this once mighty empire, squabbling over its territories and scattered riches. Europe entered what is commonly called "The Dark Ages".
Most major city centers lay in ruins, however, monasteries, because they were remote and hard to access, remained and within them were retained the culture and book knowledge lost everywhere else. Monks relentlessly copied and recopied Greek and Roman manuscripts as well as holy books, thus keeping the kernel of future civilization alive. The monasteries also served as the vanguard of future civilization, for when a monastery was founded, people naturally flocked around it to enjoy its spiritual and material benefits, and very often, this served as the nucleus of a budding town - not a few cities came out of such humble beginnings. Monasteries were often check points for travelers, forts in times of conflict, distribution centers in times of famine, hospitals in times of sickness, neutral grounds for conflicting parties to voice grievances and make pacts as well as being bastions of knowledge and skill.
Certain orders of monks were missionary in spirit and it was they who went out to conquer the barbarians with religion rather than the sword. Through a long organic process, monks actually were heavily responsible for making The Enlightenment possible by civilizing the barbarian tribes whose progeny, in forgotten centuries later, would ironically claim the Church was barbaric. If you ask a Catholic, they call the Dark Ages "The Golden Age of the Church" because the Church acted as the sole light in that dark time, and the monks played a huge role, both strong and resolute, in bringing Faith and civilization back from the brink of extinction in the west.
What is often forgotten is that monks preserved knowledge, were inventors of rudimentary machinery, many alcoholic beverages and types of cuisine, basic science, preserved language and knowledge, tutored pagan chieftains who would begin the royal lineage of kings and the lords of established realms, encouraged agriculture and land development, re-established Latin as a universal language and made connections with one another, thus laying the ground work for a new system of European unity. Reading and writing was not seen as it is today, but was as much a tool as a plane was to a carpenter and a plow to a farmer; the oral transmission of knowledge and traditions was the common way of doing things.
Centuries of struggling for basic survival culminated in a slow recovery that finally bore fruit: civilization gradually reemerged. With civilization came a new leisure class, one that would challenge kings as well as the Church, for though it did not have power or nobility, it had money. This leisure class wanted power and influence and its members desired to have access to and develop the knowledge and ideas the monks had been maintaining for centuries. The Church had established by this time public universities open to those whose discipline was for things of the mind, which usually meant nobles, the emerging middle class and religious. The middle class, with its drive to carve a spot for itself out of medieval Europe, introduced a new aggressive spirit, which manifested itself as humanism in intellectual circles. It rapidly expanded upon ideas and thinking and was quick to harness print in order to disseminate its views far and wide with great alacrity. This sudden influx developed into The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment came to despise the monks for their caution and seeming lack of enthusiasm to push into new ways of thinking and experimentation and it resented that they strove to temper it with their ponderous doctrine and moral considerations. It was ultimately a culture clash more than an issue of Faith, and ultimately, the monks were forgotten and sometimes killed in the revolutions that would later result. The Enlightenment was very much a bourgeois phenomenon, for it did not help the common man; farmers still farmed, tradesmen still plied their trade with very little of what we would call education.
For centuries, the monks coaxed civilization back from the ashes of the Roman Empire. Eventually, a new and safe society emerged that allowed for profitable trade and business, and the monks were discarded. These days, the monks are largely discredited, if they're even mentioned at all. The monks have stuck to their monasteries, as they had in centuries past and as they still do, bastions of the Faith and time capsules of knowledge should the west crumble again. To this day, however, the Enlightenment and its children have forgotten their roots in the ancient monasteries in Europe.
The church was able to gain wealth by collecting taxes.Roman Catholic AnswerAlthough there have been periods in history when the Church had a great influence of local economies, through the monasteries, which owed a great deal of land, through Bishops and Cardinals who set themselves up as local princes; the Church, itself, has never aimed for secular power but was only concerned, primarily, with the salvation of individuals. The Church's primary function in daily life: the preaching of the Gospel and the administration of the Sacraments, is, by definition, free. There is a very specific sin for charging money for these things: simony The name is taken from Simon in the New Testament who offered money to the apostles if they would give him their power through ordination.
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